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What are tendons, ligaments
and cartilage?


– tough band of connective tissue

– connects muscle to bone or muscle to muscle

– designed to withstand tension

Tendon length is practically the discerning factor where muscle size and potential muscle size is concerned

Example: A man with a 1 centimetre bicep tendon will have greater potential for muscle mass than a man with a longer tendon (Interesting, I didn’t know that but it explains why I don’t have muscle mass.)

– bodybuilders generally, but not always have short tendons

Connective Tissue

– joins one bone to another

Here is a video on tendonitis:



– is a fibrous tissue that connects bones to other bones to form a joint

– the do not connect muscles to bones, that is the job of tendons

-also known as articular ligament, aricular larua, fibrous ligament or true ligament

– refers to a band of tough, fibrous, dense, regular connective tissue bundles

– ligament are viscoelastic

– they gradually lengthen when under tension and return to their original shape when the tension is removed

– *** however, they cannot retain their original shape when stretched past a certain point for a prolonged period of time

– one reason why dislocated joints must be set quickly, if the ligament lengthens too much the joint will be weakened and prone to future dislocation

double-jointed refers to people with more elastic ligaments which allows them to stretch and contort further

medical term for double-jointed persons is hyperlaxity

– a broken ligament can cause instability of the joint

– if surgery is needed, it can repair a broken ligament

– if it can’t be fixed, Brunelli procedure can correct the instability

– instability of a joint can lead to wear of the cartilage and eventually osteoarthritis

– capsular ligament are part of the articular capsule that surrounds synovial joints and act as mechanical reinforcements

– extra-capsular ligaments join together and provide joint stability

– intra-capsular ligaments provide stability but permit a far larger range of motion

– cruciate ligaments occur in pairs

– athletes, gymnasts, dancers and martial artists perform  stretching exercises to lengthen their ligaments to make their
joints more supple




Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue.

– composed of cells called chondrocytes which are dispersed in a firm gel-like ground substance called the matrix

– is avascular (contains no blood vessels) and nutrients are diffused through the matrix

Found in:

– joints

– rib cage

– ears

– nose

– throat

– invertebral disks

3 Main Types of Cartilage

– hyaline

– elastic

– fibrocartilage



What is a muslce?


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