Archive for January, 2011


I was checking out the FDA website for something and I came across an article about the new drugs recently approved.

Lupron44

Eligard43

Lupron Depot45

Lupron Depot46

Viadur50

They were all approved on January 20, 2011. They are all made out of leuprolide acetate the same drug Lupron Depot that shut my body down in 2000, now they are bringing it out under different names. (see information on Lupron below).

I was looking through some old paperwork and came across a letter I had written about my experience with the prescription drug Lupron, leuprolide acetate. Here is my story I wrote just after taking Lupron in 2000, thank god we forget pain:

On January 2000, I went to my gynecologist. He diagnosed me with a cyst on my ovary. He said that the drug Lupron would shrink the cyst and I could avoid surgery. I asked about the side effects, he said it was only hot flashes and temporary menopause, but all goes away after the drug is done. He made it sound like a picnic. I thought that the drug was the way to go, sounded like no big deal and to avoid an operation again, why not? (I had my ovary removed surgically when I was 18 due to a cyst).

He gave me a 3 month dose Jan 13, 2000 or 11.25 mg of Lupron Depot in an injection form. Approximately 4 or 5 days later my skin started to crawl throughout my whole body, permanently day after day, creeping through my skin like waves of bugs crawling. I began to have trouble breathing, and was unable to get moving. I went to two different doctors,  was given a prescription by one, told to quit smoking by another. I did both but neither seemed to help.

We had went out to dinner one night because we had pre-arranged it with friends (yes that’s me, didn’t want to wreck anybodies plans even though I was in anaphylactic shock, I am a pretty tough soul!). While I was sitting there all of a sudden it felt like bubbles of liquid going into each of my lower front ribs, one at a time like dominos, then it crept it’s way up throughout my ribs in my whole chest and stayed as severe pain. My chest was crushing with chest pain, and I was having trouble breathing. I felt drained and sick all over and very pale. I laid on the couch for days, not being able to do anything and the pain was only getting worse.

I finally went to the hospital because I knew it was serious and out of my hands. They put me on a heart monitor and admitted me right away. My heart was either beating at 41 bpm. or erratically all over the place. All they could do was fill me with pain medications and anti-inflammatories.  The hot sweats were starting; actually it was more total body sweats yet I was freezing cold. My kidneys were working overtime.

Upon the first discharge from the hospital I got dizzy and fell onto the floor so they kept me another night. They diagnosed muscle-skeletal pain and heart problems due to the Lupron. Day by day different symptoms arrived, that was only the beginning of months of hell that followed for me.

When I stood up my skin felt so heavy it felt like it was falling off my body.

I had muscle-skeletal pain throughout my whole body, esp. the rib and breast bones.

Dyspnea, difficulty breathing.

Body sweats and chills, ghostly-white complexion.

Shrieking skull pain, migraine on right side of head.

I had huge cramps throughout my legs, pain in lower, outside, right leg.

Breast pain, loss of sexual desire (well who could think about sex with all this going on???)

Cold body, temperature 93.3 F

Low heart rate or racing heart.

Stomach swelled up, dehydrated, excessive thirst.

Throat swelled, feeling of choking.

Bowels quit working, kidneys working overtime.

Numb cheeks and limbs.

Visual disturbances, right eye teared constantly.

Nausea, dizziness, shakes.

Spinal tremors, irritability, nervousness.

Sore teeth, left jaw pain.

Cardiac arrhythmia, palpitations.

Insomnia.

Lower back pain.

Intensified rash and swollen lymph nodes.

Every evening at 8 pm my throat would swell and I could actually feel the serum pump out of my throat down into my chest, then throughout my body. The chest and breast pain would increase, my heart would start pumping wildly, my stomach would ache, cramping would increase, body sweats, cold body, and total exhaustion would set in.

I had to spray my entire mid section with muscle pain spray for weeks on end because the drugs didn’t even touch the pain. The horror went on day after day after week after week which turned into months. My Lupus and Fibromyalgia were flaring big time by now. I was gray in color and totally lifeless and I felt like I was going to die. It was the darkest time of my life.

After calling the Doctor who prescribed the Lupron to me, he sent me away saying, go see a cardiologist, there is no way Lupron would do that. It took over 3 months for the drug to quit the “flare effects: and 169 days to be eliminated (supposedly, according to science! I think it is still in my ribs as I have severe rib pain to this day), many natural remedies and 6 months for menstruation to return. Now all that was left was the damage. I also broke two teeth on Lupron.

No one had an antidote to stop this drug from terrorizing my body, so I took my dying body to a Naturopathic Doctor. She put me on some homeopathic medicines and herbals right away and miraculously she took that overwhelming feeling of death away. She said I was grey in color when I came in and that was almost 2 months after the shock set in.

I got my internal orans tested from electro dermal screening and they showed severe stress on all my internal organs, especially the heart, gallbladder, lymphatics, kidneys, bladder, thyroid, liver, adrenals and central nervous system. This was a direct result from the Lupron.

It totally devastated me and my family. Never again! I am going to continue to see a Naturopathic Doctor. She took away the numbness in my cheeks, the swelling in my hands, the shrieking skull pain, the dizziness, the total exhaustion, the rash is clearing up, I have some colour back and some energy.

I still have a long way to go but she helped me out of the severe stress that Lupron put me in. I have seen enough improvement to convince me, Naturopathic medicine is the only way out of a major adverse drug reaction or perhaps any major health crisis. I know who’s hands I feel safe in now.

Isn’t it amazing that they are so willing to pay $1188.00 (times two as it was only half the prescription, I opted out for round 2!)

God, I forgot how ill it made me. I am not a doctor, or a lawyer and this drug is approved by the FDA but not in my lifetime would I recommend it to any human. I actually would warn anyone not to use Lupron, but that is just my opinion through a very bad experience! It’s your body!

This was approved years ago by TAP, they had multi million dollar fines from it, so I suspect these are new companies that want to get in on the sales with this drug too. I think we will be hearing more people being prescribed this drug again. How can the FDA approve

I also would like to note that the cyst was still there after all was said and done. It was the herbals that took the cysts away. Now I believe that I could have avoided surgery when I was 18 as well.

I get the willies through my body when I see or hear the name Lupron. I will write this article but I won’t be reading it again, I just wanted other to know that you could experience side effects. When I was part of the Lupron victims website (10,000+ victims), there was a few deaths as well as heart attacks and stokes beside the multi symptoms and serious organ involvement from thousands of women as well as men. It is a drug given to men for prostrate cancer as well so you might want to check it out too guys. See http://www.lupronvictimshub.com/deaths.html for a long list of male deaths after taking Lupron.

http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/NewsEvents/UCM130961

January 20, 2011

  • DaTscan42 (ioflupane I 123) Injection, GE Healthcare, Approval
  • Eligard43 (leuprolide acetate) Subcutaneous Injection, sanofi-aventis U.S., LLC, Labeling Revision
  • Lupron44 (leuprolide acetate) Injection, Abbott Laboratories, Labeling Revision
  • Lupron Depot45 (leuprolide acetate) Injection, Abbott Laboratories, Labeling Revision
  • Lupron Depot46 (leuprolide acedate) Injectioon, Abbott Laboratories, Labeling Revision
  • Nithiodote47 (sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate) Injection, Hope Pharmaceuticals, Approval
  • Trelstar Depot48 (triptorelin palmoate) Intramuscular Injection, Watson Laboratories, Inc., Labeling Revision
  • Vantas49 (histrelin acetate) Subcutaneous Implant, Endo Pharmaceuticals Solutions, Inc., Labeling Revision
  • Viadur50 (leuprolide acetate) Implant, Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, LLC, Labeling Revision
  • Zoladex51(goserelin acetate) Implant, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, LP, Labeling Revision
  • Zoladex52 (goserelin acetate) Implant, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, LP, Labeling Revision

Read more other articles on Lupron:

Despite these many risks and negative experiences, manufacturers of leuprolide acetate have continued to market the drug for existing and new uses — most notably, as a treatment for prostate cancer. But a former U.S. Food and Drug Administration medical officer has said that Lupron’s manufacturer, TAP Pharmaceuticals, did not study the drug adequately before or after introducing it to the market, and he alleged that the company hid what it knew about risks of bone density loss, generalized pain, headaches, fluid retention, depression, and immune and nervous system problems, including spinal fracture, convulsions and paralysis.

I wanted to address Oxycondone for a reason. My hometown and surrounding areas have many adults addicted to Percocet or Oxycontin. They are now prescribing medical marijuana in hopes to get them all off the highly addictive prescriptions of pain killers. I believe that most are coming from the streets rather than prescribed, how ever.

It has become a very expensive street drug. After doing some more research (see below), I discovered that Oxycodone abuse has been a continuing problem in the US since early 1960’s. Why has it been allowed to escalate for 50 years with even more deaths, addictions, crime and prescription abuse? Is it all about the money because I don’t understand how it could take so long to address one drug issue?

Short acting Oxycodone 2.5 to 5 mg

Endocet

Oxycocet

Percodan

Gerneric

Endodan

Newest short acting of 5, 10 & 20 mg

Supeudol®

Oxy IR®

Long acting introduced in 10 to 80 mg tabs

OxyContin® which is often referred as ” Hillbilly Heroin”

Oxycodan

Here are some facts from Health Canada:

http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/pubs/precurs/oxycodone/fs-fi/index-eng.php

Health Canada is aware of increasing concerns about the possible misuse and abuse of oxycodone-based products in Canada, particularly in Atlantic Canada.

Health Canada has met with key Atlantic stakeholders including the provincial ministries of Health and licensing authorities for pharmacists and physicians to discuss their concerns about the prescribing and usage of controlled substances, especially oxycodone. As a result of the consultations, Health Canada undertook a review of all sales transactions of oxycodone-based products in Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island. To date, only estimates regarding the volume of prescriptions and transactions of oxycodone-based products in Atlantic Canada were available. Please note that one prescription can generate a number of transactions.

Health Canada admits there is a problem. I did further research with the US Department of Justice Office of Diverse Control

Drugs and Chemicals of Concern


OXYCODONE

http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugs_concern/oxycodone/oxycodone.htm

Acute overdose of oxycodone can produce severe respiratory depression, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, reduction in blood pressure and heart rate, coma, respiratory arrest, and death.

Illicit Uses:

Oxycodone abuse has been a continuing problem in the U.S. since the early 1960s. Oxycodone is abused for its euphoric effects. It is equipotent to morphine in relieving abstinence symptoms from chronic opiate (heroin, morphine) administration.

http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugs_concern/oxycodone/summary.htm

Illicit Distribution:

Main sources of oxycodone on the street:

  • forged prescriptions
  • professional diversion through unscrupulous pharmacists, doctors, and dentists
  • “doctor-shopping”
  • armed robberies, and night break-ins of pharmacies and nursing homes.

The diversion and abuse of OxyContin® has become a major public health problem in recent years.

  • In 2008, 13.8 million people aged 12 or older used oxycodone (4.8 million used OxyContin®) for nonmedical use at least once during their lifetime (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008).
  • The American Poison Control Centers reported 15,069 cases mentions and 7,528 single exposures, involving 13 deaths, related to oxycodone in 2007.
  • According to reports from DEA field offices, oxycodone products sell at an average price of $1 per milligram, the 40 mg OxyContin® tablet being the most popular.
  • According to the National Forensic Laboratory Information System, federal law enforcement seizures increased 116% from 508 items/exhibits in 2004 to 1,096 items/exhibits in 2008.
  • Seizures of oxycodone submitted to state and local laboratories increased 124% from 14,990 items/exhibits in 2004 to 33,612 items/exhibits in 2008.
  • From January through June 2009, federal law enforcement officers seized 678 items/exhibits identified as oxycodone and 19,343 oxycodone items/exhibits were submitted to state and local laboratories.

Comments and additional information are welcomed by the Drug and Chemical Evaluation Section; Fax 202-353-1263, telephone 202-307-7183, and Email ODE@usdoj.gov.

http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugs_concern/oxycodone/summary.htm

OxyContin® was introduced by Purdue Pharma in 1995.

  • Currently approved in 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 milligram strengths.
  • From the first full year of sales in 1996, the number of OxyContin® prescriptions has risen 18 fold, to approximately 5.8 million prescriptions in 2000.
  • DEA has initiated meetings with the National Alliance for Model State Drug Laws, which has been the catalyst for the establishment of state prescription monitoring programs. Such programs provide a better mechanism to gather and evaluate prescription data, which is essential in responding to newly developing trends in prescription drug abuse. Existing data sources (IMS, Inc.) indicate that the five states with the lowest number of per capita OxyContin® prescriptions all have long standing prescription monitoring programs in place. These five states, beginning with the fewest per capita prescriptions for OxyContin® are California, Illinois, New York, Texas, and New Mexico. The majority of states reporting significant abuse and diversion issues are those without such programs. DEA has embarked on a number of programs to collect and monitor prescription data for controlled substances.

That was in 2000 and it is now 2011, have such programs been put into place since then?

http://www.justice.gov/dea/pubs/cngrtest/ct082801.htm

Drug free organization for kids:

http://www.drugfree.org/

You should have a quick look at:

DEA Most Wanted Fugitives

http://www.justice.gov/dea/fugitives/fuglist.htm

I live in Canada so I thought this had nothing much to do with me until I clicked on a girl who looked like someone I had seen. To my surprise she was last seen in Ontario so I very well could have seen her, but I have no idea where or when?

I think we should perhaps have the most wanted fugitives linked in with all hospitals, pharmacies and Dr’s offices as they will most likely need help through those sources or be looking for prescriptions for pain killers. So like the butterfly effect, everything has something to do with everything. We all need to be together on saving our planet and our people!

Oxycodone addiction blamed for rise

in pharmacy heists

Drugstore robberies up sharply, police say

By Conal Pierse, Edmonton Journal March 30, 2011

Pharmacy robberies are on the rise in Edmonton and oxycodone is to blame, police said Tuesday.

http://www.edmontonjournal.com/news/Oxycodone+addiction+blamed+rise+pharmacy+heists/4526606/story.html

Is there any difference really whether it is street drugs or prescription drugs? To me, Doctors are no more than legal drug dealers. Humans seem to have a problem with addiction period. Whether it be with drugs, collecting, over consumption of food, alcohol, sex or video games, we just can’t get enough can we?

Brazil joins Bolivia anti-drug fight

Brazil has signed an agreement with Bolivia to tackle cocaine production and trafficking in the country.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-12916154

 

 

Tylenol Deaths are happening from liver failure from intentional and unintentional overdosing. The news is everywhere that the FDA is capping the dose of Acetaminophen to 325 mg. I found a very extensive list for Tylenol or Acetaminophen Sources from the government medlineplus website, have a look, it is unbelievable how large the list is. No wonder people are overdosing on the product when it is so far spread. :

Here is the FDA website itself issuing warning, lots of information on liver damage there:

Acetaminophen Information

On January 13, 2011, FDA announced that it is asking manufacturers of prescription acetaminophen combination products to limit the maximum amount of acetaminophen in these products to 325 mg per tablet, capsule, or other dosage unit. FDA believes that limiting the amount of acetaminophen per tablet, capsule, or other dosage unit in prescription products will reduce the risk of severe liver injury from acetaminophen overdosing, an adverse event that can lead to liver failure, liver transplant, and death.

http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/InformationbyDrugClass/ucm165107.htm

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a681004.html#brand-name-1

Here are some of the ingredients that are in the products you are taking like Tylenol Cough and Cold, Vicodin, Exedrin Back and Body, Sudafed PE Sinus Headaches to name a few. Interesting, good old Anacin’s ingredients are Acetaminophen, Aspirin and Caffeine. If we are also taking prescription drugs and also ingesting more chemicals such as aspartame and msg, think about how quickly we can send our livers into stress. I will slowly do a search on these ingredients to see what they are doing to our systems as well. I know Oxycodone can be deadly, is sold for big bucks on the street for a “high” and is highly addictive.

Here is a list of ingredients that the acetaminophen is mixed with for coughs, colds and pain relief. Sources are also from Aspirin, Caffeine, Phenyltoloxamine, Pseudoephedrine, Triprolidine, Phenylephrine, Hydrocodone, Salicylamide, Butalbital, Caffeine, Magnesium, Dextromethorphan, Doxylamine, Pseudoephedrine, Pamabrom, Pyrilamine, Butalbital, Oxycodone, Dextromethorphan, Guaifenesin, Phenylephrine, Pamabrom, Pyrilamine, Chlorpheniramine, Dextromethorphan, Isometheptene, Guaifenesin, Dexbrompheniramine, Pseudoephedrine Extended Release Tablet, Phenylephrine, Diphenhydramine, Chlorzoxazone, Pamabrom, Vitamin B6, Pyrilamine, Isometheptene

Prescriptions Drugs:

Vicodin

Lortab

Darvocet

Percocet

Endocet

Roxicet

Ultracet

Fioricet

Midrin

Over the Counter Drugs:

Tylenol

Excedrin

Lortab

Non Aspirin Pain Relief

Tylenol Children’s

Tylenol Infants

Tylenol Sore Throat

Excedrin PM

Tylenol PM

Legatrin PM

Sominex Pain

Tylenol Severe Allergy

Anacin PM Aspirin Free

Alka Seltzer Plus Cold and Sinus

Children’s Tylenol Sinus

Infant’s Tylenol Cold

Sinutab Sinus Maximum Strength Without Drowsiness

Sudafed Cold and Sinus

Sudafed Sinus Headache

Excedrin

Genaced

Goody’s Extra Strength Headache Powder

Vanquish Extra Strength Pain Reliever

Alka Seltzer Plus Cold

Children’s Tylenol Cold

Comtrex Allergy Sinus

Thera-Flu Flu and Cold

Sinutab Sinus Allergy

I was reading this article called Crime Waves – The 100 corporate criminals of the 1990s. I am in awe to think it is a slap on the wrist to pay a fine of $500 million yet there are people starving in this world. Many are sick and some have died because of these companies. What I don’t understand is why aren’t they being closed down instead of paying a “slap on the wrist fine” so they can continue to destroy our people, water and air. Amazing article, I have included the ones of interest to Fibromyalgia news, Chronic Pain and World health news below but you can go to their website and get the whole story and the complete list.

Here it is, it will shock you how much money is being paid in fines, makes you wonder how much these companies are pulling in yearly. My question, who can we trust? Is it any wonder why we are sick and our planet is being polluted? Man is destroying our planet! These are companies that we are sponsoring by buying their products too.

We need to clean up this toxic mess and rebuild our planet back to it’s natural state. Unless we eliminate these criminal acts instead of masking the symptoms with a fine and turning a blind eye on the company so they can continue to pollute the planet for greed of money.

http://www.allbusiness.com/human-resources/employee-development-employee-ethics/334869-1.html

Every year, the major business magazines put out their annual surveys of big business in the United States.

You have the Fortune 500, the Forbes 400, the Forbes Platinum 100, the International 800 – among others.

These lists rank big corporations by sales, assets, profits and market share. The point of these surveys is simple – to identify and glorify the biggest and most profitable corporations.

The point of the list contained in this article is to focus public attention on a wave of corporate criminality that has swamped prosecutors offices around the country.

This is the dark underside of the marketplace that is given little sustained attention and analysis by politicians and news outlets.

This compilation of the top 100 corporate criminals of the 1990s uses the most narrow and conservative of definitions – corporations that have pied guilty or no contest to crimes and have been criminally fined in the United States.

The 100 corporate criminals fell into 14 categories of crime: environmental (38), antitrust (20), fraud (13), campaign finance (7), food and drug (6), financial crimes (4), false statements (3), illegal exports (3), illegal boycott (1), worker death (1), bribery (1), obstruction of justice (1), public corruption (1) and tax evasion (1).

This list does not try to assess and compare the damage committed by these corporate criminals or by other corporate wrongdoers.

There are millions of people in the United States who care about morality in the marketplace.

But few realize that when they buy Exxon stock, or when they fill up at an Exxon gas station, they are in fact supporting a criminal recidivist corporation.

And few realize that when they take a ride on a cruise ship owned by Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines, they are riding on a ship owned by a criminal recidivist corporation.

Six corporations that made the list of the top 100 corporate criminals were criminal recidivist companies during the 1990s.

In addition to Exxon and Royal Caribbean, Rockwell International, Warner-Lambert, Teledyne and United Technologies each pied guilty to more than one crime during the 1990s.

CORPORATE CRIME AND JUSTICE

A few caveats about the top 100 list.

Caveat one: Big companies that are criminally prosecuted represent only the tip of a very large iceberg of corporate wrongdoing.

For every company convicted of health care fraud, there are numerous others who get away with ripping off Medicare and Medicaid, or face only mild slap-on-the-wrist fines and civil penalties when caught.

For every company convicted of polluting the nation’s waterways, there are many others who are not prosecuted because they do not get caught or because their corporate defense lawyers are able to offer up a low-level employee to go to jail in exchange for a promise from prosecutors not to touch the company or high-level executives.

For every corporation convicted of bribery or of giving money directly to a public official in violation of federal law, there are thousands who give money legally through political action committees to candidates and political parties. They profit from a system that effectively has legalized bribery.

For every corporation convicted of selling illegal pesticides, there are countless more who are not prosecuted because their lobbyists have worked their way in Washington to ensure that dangerous pesticides remain legal.

For every corporation convicted of reckless homicide in the death of a worker, there are hundreds of others that don’t even get investigated for reckless homicide when a worker is killed on the job. Only a few district attorneys across the country (Michael McCann, the DA in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, being one) regularly investigate workplace deaths as homicides.

Caveat two: Corporations define the laws under which they live.

For example, the automobile industry over the past 30 years has worked its will on Congress to block legislation that would impose criminal sanctions on knowing and willful violations of the federal auto safety laws. Now, if an auto company is caught violating the law, and if the cops are not asleep at the wheel, only a civil fine is imposed.

Caveat three: Because of their immense political power, big corporations have the resources to defend themselves in courts of law and in the court of public opinion.

Few prosecutors are willing to subject themselves to the constant legal and public relations barrage that a corporation’s well connected and high-priced legal talent can inflict.

It is a testament to the tenacity of a few dedicated federal prosecutors that Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines, for example, was criminally convicted of polluting the oceans.

In the criminal prosecution of Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines, the company faced a team of two federal criminal prosecutors.

To defend itself, Royal Caribbean hired Judson Starr and Jerry Block, both of whom have served as head of the Justice Department’s Environmental Crimes Section, and former Attorney General Benjamin Civiletti.

Also representing Royal Caribbean were former federal prosecutors Kenneth C. Bass III and Norman Moscowitz. Donald Carr of Winthrop & Stimson also joined the defense team.

Hired on as experts on international law issues were former Attorney General Eliot Richardson, University of Virginia law professor John Norton Moore, former State Department officials Terry Leitzell and Bernard Oxman, and four retired senior admirals.

As the case proceeded to trial, Royal Caribbean engaged in a massive public relations campaign, taking out ads during the Super Bowl, putting former Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrators on its board of directors and donating thousands of dollars to environmental groups.

Federal prosecutors overcame this legal and public relations barrage and convicted the company. But that was an unusual prosecution and unusually determined prosecutors.

SUITE CRIME VS. STREET CRIME

While the 1990s was a decade of booming markets and booming profits, it was also a decade of rampant corporate criminality.

There is an emerging consensus among corporate criminologists: corporate crime and violence inflicts far more damage on society than all street crime combined.

The FBI estimates, for example, that burglary and robbery- street crimes – costs the United States $3.8 billion a year.

Compare this to the hundreds of billions of dollars stolen from people in the United States as a result of corporate and white-collar fraud.

Health care fraud alone costs U.S. citizens $100 billion to $400 billion a year.

The savings and loan fraud – which former Attorney General Dick Thornburgh called “the biggest white-collar swindle in history” – cost anywhere from $300 billion to $500 billion.

And then there are lesser frauds: auto repair fraud, $40 billion a year, securities fraud, $15 billion a year – and on down the list.

Recite this list of corporate frauds and people will immediately say you can’t compare street crime and corporate crime – corporate crime is not violent crime.

Unfortunately, corporate crime is often violent crime.

The FBI estimates that 19,000 people are murdered every year in the United States.

Compare this to the 56,000 people in the United States who die every year on the job or from occupational diseases such as black lung and asbestosis and the tens of thousands of others who fall victim to the silent violence of pollution, contaminated foods, hazardous consumer products and hospital malpractice.

These deaths are often the result of criminal recklessness. They are sometimes prosecuted as homicides or as criminal violations of federal laws.

And environmental crimes often result in death, disease and injury.

In 1998, for example, a Tampa, Florida company and the company’s plant manager were found guilty of violating a federal hazardous waste law. Those illegal acts resulted in the deaths of two nine-year-old boys who were playing in a dumpster at the company’s facility.

This article’s list is only a tiny step in an effort to fill a great void in corporate crime research.

The Justice Department has the information and should get the budget to begin putting out yearly reports on corporate crime.

Every year, the Justice Department puts out an annual report titled “Crime in the United States.”

But by “Crime in the United States,” the Justice Department means “street crime in the United States.”

“Crime in the United States” reports on burglary, robbery and theft. There is nothing in it about price-fixing, corporate fraud, pollution or public corruption.

A yearly Justice Department report on corporate crime in the United States is long overdue.

1. F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $500 million

Date: May 1999

The Swiss pharmaceutical giant, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., pied guilty and agreed to pay a record $500 million criminal fine for leading a worldwide conspiracy to raise and fix prices and allocate market shares for certain vitamins sold in the United States and elsewhere.

2. Daiwa Bank Ltd.

Type of Crime: Fraud

Criminal Fine: $340 million

Date: February 1996

Daiwa Bank Ltd. pied guilty to 16 federal felonies and paid a $340 million criminal fine – at the time, the largest criminal fine ever imposed in the United States.

Federal officials charged that the bank and bank officials sought to cover-up massive securities trading losses on two separate occasions and deceive and defraud bank regulators.

Daiwa pled guilty to two counts of conspiracy to defraud the United States and the Federal Reserve Bank, one count of misprison of a felony, 10 counts of falsifying bank books and records, two counts of wire fraud and one count of obstructing a bank examination.

3. BASF Aktiengesellschaft

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $225 million

Date: May 1999

Every year, the major business magazines put out their annual surveys of big business in the United States.

You have the Fortune 500, the Forbes 400, the Forbes Platinum 100, the International 800 – among others.

These lists rank big corporations by sales, assets, profits and market share. The point of these surveys is simple – to identify and glorify the biggest and most profitable corporations.

The point of the list contained in this article is to focus public attention on a wave of corporate criminality that has swamped prosecutors offices around the country.

This is the dark underside of the marketplace that is given little sustained attention and analysis by politicians and news outlets.

This compilation of the top 100 corporate criminals of the 1990s uses the most narrow and conservative of definitions – corporations that have pied guilty or no contest to crimes and have been criminally fined in the United States.

The 100 corporate criminals fell into 14 categories of crime: environmental (38), antitrust (20), fraud (13), campaign finance (7), food and drug (6), financial crimes (4), false statements (3), illegal exports (3), illegal boycott (1), worker death (1), bribery (1), obstruction of justice (1), public corruption (1) and tax evasion (1).

This list does not try to assess and compare the damage committed by these corporate criminals or by other corporate wrongdoers.

There are millions of people in the United States who care about morality in the marketplace.

But few realize that when they buy Exxon stock, or when they fill up at an Exxon gas station, they are in fact supporting a criminal recidivist corporation.

And few realize that when they take a ride on a cruise ship owned by Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines, they are riding on a ship owned by a criminal recidivist corporation.

Six corporations that made the list of the top 100 corporate criminals were criminal recidivist companies during the 1990s.

In addition to Exxon and Royal Caribbean, Rockwell International, Warner-Lambert, Teledyne and United Technologies each pied guilty to more than one crime during the 1990s.

CORPORATE CRIME AND JUSTICE

A few caveats about the top 100 list.

Caveat one: Big companies that are criminally prosecuted represent only the tip of a very large iceberg of corporate wrongdoing.

For every company convicted of health care fraud, there are numerous others who get away with ripping off Medicare and Medicaid, or face only mild slap-on-the-wrist fines and civil penalties when caught.

For every company convicted of polluting the nation’s waterways, there are many others who are not prosecuted because they do not get caught or because their corporate defense lawyers are able to offer up a low-level employee to go to jail in exchange for a promise from prosecutors not to touch the company or high-level executives.

For every corporation convicted of bribery or of giving money directly to a public official in violation of federal law, there are thousands who give money legally through political action committees to candidates and political parties. They profit from a system that effectively has legalized bribery.

For every corporation convicted of selling illegal pesticides, there are countless more who are not prosecuted because their lobbyists have worked their way in Washington to ensure that dangerous pesticides remain legal.

For every corporation convicted of reckless homicide in the death of a worker, there are hundreds of others that don’t even get investigated for reckless homicide when a worker is killed on the job. Only a few district attorneys across the country (Michael McCann, the DA in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, being one) regularly investigate workplace deaths as homicides.

Caveat two: Corporations define the laws under which they live.

For example, the automobile industry over the past 30 years has worked its will on Congress to block legislation that would impose criminal sanctions on knowing and willful violations of the federal auto safety laws. Now, if an auto company is caught violating the law, and if the cops are not asleep at the wheel, only a civil fine is imposed.

Caveat three: Because of their immense political power, big corporations have the resources to defend themselves in courts of law and in the court of public opinion.

Few prosecutors are willing to subject themselves to the constant legal and public relations barrage that a corporation’s well connected and high-priced legal talent can inflict.

It is a testament to the tenacity of a few dedicated federal prosecutors that Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines, for example, was criminally convicted of polluting the oceans.

In the criminal prosecution of Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines, the company faced a team of two federal criminal prosecutors.

To defend itself, Royal Caribbean hired Judson Starr and Jerry Block, both of whom have served as head of the Justice Department’s Environmental Crimes Section, and former Attorney General Benjamin Civiletti.

Also representing Royal Caribbean were former federal prosecutors Kenneth C. Bass III and Norman Moscowitz. Donald Carr of Winthrop & Stimson also joined the defense team.

Hired on as experts on international law issues were former Attorney General Eliot Richardson, University of Virginia law professor John Norton Moore, former State Department officials Terry Leitzell and Bernard Oxman, and four retired senior admirals.

As the case proceeded to trial, Royal Caribbean engaged in a massive public relations campaign, taking out ads during the Super Bowl, putting former Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrators on its board of directors and donating thousands of dollars to environmental groups.

Federal prosecutors overcame this legal and public relations barrage and convicted the company. But that was an unusual prosecution and unusually determined prosecutors.

SUITE CRIME VS. STREET CRIME

While the 1990s was a decade of booming markets and booming profits, it was also a decade of rampant corporate criminality.

There is an emerging consensus among corporate criminologists: corporate crime and violence inflicts far more damage on society than all street crime combined.

The FBI estimates, for example, that burglary and robbery- street crimes – costs the United States $3.8 billion a year.

Compare this to the hundreds of billions of dollars stolen from people in the United States as a result of corporate and white-collar fraud.

Health care fraud alone costs U.S. citizens $100 billion to $400 billion a year.

The savings and loan fraud – which former Attorney General Dick Thornburgh called “the biggest white-collar swindle in history” – cost anywhere from $300 billion to $500 billion.

And then there are lesser frauds: auto repair fraud, $40 billion a year, securities fraud, $15 billion a year – and on down the list.

Recite this list of corporate frauds and people will immediately say you can’t compare street crime and corporate crime – corporate crime is not violent crime.

Unfortunately, corporate crime is often violent crime.

The FBI estimates that 19,000 people are murdered every year in the United States.

Compare this to the 56,000 people in the United States who die every year on the job or from occupational diseases such as black lung and asbestosis and the tens of thousands of others who fall victim to the silent violence of pollution, contaminated foods, hazardous consumer products and hospital malpractice.

These deaths are often the result of criminal recklessness. They are sometimes prosecuted as homicides or as criminal violations of federal laws.

And environmental crimes often result in death, disease and injury.

In 1998, for example, a Tampa, Florida company and the company’s plant manager were found guilty of violating a federal hazardous waste law. Those illegal acts resulted in the deaths of two nine-year-old boys who were playing in a dumpster at the company’s facility.

This article’s list is only a tiny step in an effort to fill a great void in corporate crime research.

The Justice Department has the information and should get the budget to begin putting out yearly reports on corporate crime.

Every year, the Justice Department puts out an annual report titled “Crime in the United States.”

But by “Crime in the United States,” the Justice Department means “street crime in the United States.”

“Crime in the United States” reports on burglary, robbery and theft. There is nothing in it about price-fixing, corporate fraud, pollution or public corruption.

A yearly Justice Department report on corporate crime in the United States is long overdue.

1. F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $500 million

Date: May 1999

The Swiss pharmaceutical giant, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., pied guilty and agreed to pay a record $500 million criminal fine for leading a worldwide conspiracy to raise and fix prices and allocate market shares for certain vitamins sold in the United States and elsewhere.

In Dallas, the Department of Justice charged the company with conspiring to fix, raise and maintain prices, and to allocate the sales volumes of vitamins sold by them and other unnamed co-conspirator companies in the United States and elsewhere.

Federal officials also allege that the company allocated contracts for vitamin premixes for customers throughout the United States and rigged the bids for those contracts.

The conspiracy lasted from January 1990 into February 1999 and affected the vitamins most commonly used as nutritional supplements or to enrich human food and animal feed – vitamins A, B2, B5, C, E and Beta Carotene.

Vitamin premixes, which are used to enrich breakfast cereals and numerous other processed foods were also affected by the conspiracy, the Department said.

2. Daiwa Bank Ltd.

Type of Crime: Fraud

Criminal Fine: $340 million

Date: February 1996

Daiwa Bank Ltd. pied guilty to 16 federal felonies and paid a $340 million criminal fine – at the time, the largest criminal fine ever imposed in the United States.

Federal officials charged that the bank and bank officials sought to cover-up massive securities trading losses on two separate occasions and deceive and defraud bank regulators.

Daiwa pled guilty to two counts of conspiracy to defraud the United States and the Federal Reserve Bank, one count of misprison of a felony, 10 counts of falsifying bank books and records, two counts of wire fraud and one count of obstructing a bank examination.

Mary Jo White, the U.S. Attorney in Manhattan, told reporters that her office made many efforts to obtain the bank’s cooperation in the criminal investigation, “but no meaningful cooperation was ever given.”

“These corporate crimes represent companies at their highest levels acting at their worst,” White said. “What we aim for in law enforcement in the corporate context is good corporate citizenship, cooperation and openness with authorities, and genuine efforts to improve a corporate culture that has led to the problems and crimes under investigation. Unfortunately, until today’s guilty pleas, we had the opposite from Daiwa.”

3. BASF Aktiengesellschaft

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $225 million

Date: May 1999

A German company, BASF Aktiengesellschaft, pied guilty and agreed to pay a $225 million criminal fine for leading a worldwide conspiracy to raise and fix prices and allocate market shares for certain vitamins sold in the United States and elsewhere. BASF pied guilty in connection with the same case as the top corporate criminal – Hoffman LaRoche.

In Dallas, the Department of Justice charged the company with conspiring to fix, raise, and maintain prices, and allocate the sales volumes of vitamins sold by them and other unnamed co-conspirator companies in the United States and elsewhere.

4. SGL Carbon Aktiengesellschaft (SGL AG)

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $135 million

Date: May 1999

SGL Carbon Aktiengesellschaft (SGL AG), the world’s largest producer of graphite and carbon products, pied guilty to antitrust crimes and agreed to pay a record $135 million fine for participating in an international conspiracy to fix prices and allocate the volume of graphite electrodes in the United States and elsewhere.

Graphite electrodes are large columns used in electric arc furnaces in steel-making “mini-mills.”

5. Exxon Corporation and Exxon Shipping

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $125 million

Date: March 1991

Exxon Corporation and Exxon Shipping pied guilty to federal criminal charges in connection with the March 24, 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill.

The company was assessed a $125 million criminal fine.

Attorney General Dick Thornburgh called the fine “the largest single environmental criminal recovery ever enacted.”

The companies pied guilty to misdemeanor violations of federal environmental laws.

Approximately 11 million gallons of crude oil spilled from the Valdez, fouling 700 miles of Alaska shoreline, killing birds and fish, and destroying the way of life of thousands of Native Americans.

7. Archer Daniels Midland

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $100 million

Date: October 1996

Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) pied guilty and paid a $100 million criminal fine – at the time, the largest criminal antitrust fine ever – for its role in conspiracies to fix prices to eliminate competition and allocate sales in the lysine and citric acid markets worldwide.

Federal officials said that as a result of ADM’s crime, seed companies, large poultry and swine producers and ultimately farmers paid millions more to buy the lysine additive.

In addition, manufacturers of soft drinks, processed foods, detergents and others paid millions more to buy the citric acid additive, which ultimately caused consumers to pay more for those products.

Lysine is an amino acid used by farmers as a feed additive to ensure the proper growth of livestock. It is a $600 million a year industry worldwide.

Citric acid is a flavor additive and preservative produced from various sugars. It is found in soft drinks, processed food, detergents, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Citric acid is a $1.2 billion a year industry worldwide.

8. (tie) Banker’s Trust

Type of Crime: Financial

Criminal Fine: $60 million

Date: March 1999

8. (tie) Sears Bankruptcy Recovery Management Services

Type of Crime: Fraud

Criminal Fine: $60 million

Date: February 1999

Sears Bankruptcy Recovery Management Services, a unit of Sears, Roebuck and Company, pied guilty to one count of bankruptcy fraud involving fraudulent reaffirmation practices that began in 1985 and continued until early 1997. Sears also agreed to pay a $60 million fine.

Sears has already paid over $180 million in restitution to about 188,000 debtors and $40 million in civil fines to 50 state attorneys general.

The $60 million criminal fine is the largest fine ever to be paid in a bankruptcy fraud case. The fine also is believed to be the largest criminal fine ever in Massachusetts, and one of the largest nationwide.

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal fine: $50 million

Date: February 1997

Haarman & Reimer Corp., a New Jersey-based subsidiary of the Germany-based pharmaceutical and chemical giant Bayer AG, pied guilty and agreed to pay a $50 million criminal fine for participating in an international conspiracy to fix prices and allocate sales in the citric acid market worldwide.

“This $50 million criminal fine sends a clear message to corporations around the world,” said Attorney General Janet Reno.

“We will not tolerate international conspiracies that defraud American consumers, and those companies that engage in collusive conduct will be punished.”

11 Louisiana-Pacific Corporation

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $37 million

Date: June 1998

Louisiana-Pacific Corporation pied guilty to 18 felonies, was fined $37 million, and was placed on five years probation.

The plea agreement, cut with the U.S. Attorney in Colorado, capped a six-year investigation of the nation’s largest producer of oriented stranded board (OSB), a laminated structural wood panel that is used as a plywood substitute in residential and commercial construction.

The criminal investigation began in July 1992, when Dave Horan, a former Louisiana-Pacific supervisor at its Montrose, Colorado facility, filed a lawsuit against the company alleging that he had been fired because he refused to tamper with the Montrose mill’s pollution monitoring equipment.

12. Hoechst AG

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $36 million

Date: May 1999

The German chemical and pharmaceutical giant Hoechst AG pied guilty and agreed to pay a $36 million criminal fine for participating in a 17-year international conspiracy to fix prices and allocate market shares on the sale of sorbates in the United States and elsewhere.

13. Damon Clinical Laboratories, Inc.

Type of Crime: Fraud

Criminal Fine: $35.2 million

Date: October 1996

Damon Clinical Laboratories, Inc., a unit of Corning Inc., pied guilty to a one-count criminal information charging the company with conspiring to defraud the United States by submitting false claims to the Medicare program.

Corning paid $119 million in fines and penalties – $35.2 million as a criminal fine and $83.7 to resolve related civil liabilities.

Federal officials said that the $119 million payment represents a recovery of three dollars for every one dollar that the company stole from federal and state health care programs.

14. C.R. Bard Inc.

Type of Crime: Food and drug

Criminal Fine: $30.9 million

Date: October 1993

C.R. Bard Inc., a heart catheter manufacturer, pied guilty to a 391-count criminal charge for marketing an unapproved medical device that caused at least 10 patients to undergo emergency heart surgery and at least one death.

The company paid $60.1 million in fines and penalties, including a $30.9 million criminal fine.

A heart catheter is a wire with a balloon-like tip which is temporarily threaded into a person’s coronary arteries by a doctor and then inflated in order to flatten material which is clogging the artery. The device widens the path through which blood can flow to the heart muscle.

15 Genentech Inc.

Type of Crime: Food and drug

Criminal Fine: $30 million

Date: April 1999

Genentech Inc., the San Francisco-based biotech and pharmaceutical company, pied guilty to marketing to doctors one of its most lucrative prescription drugs, Protropin, for uses which had not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Genentech paid a $30 million criminal fine and $20 million in civil penalties.

Genentech admitted that from 1985 to 1994, it aggressively marketed Protropin, a synthetic human growth hormone, to doctors, hospitals, and others for use in the treatment of various medical conditions for which Protropin had not received FDA approval.

It is illegal under federal law for a drug company to market a drug for purposes which the FDA has not approved based on research and clinical trials.

16. Nippon Gohsei

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $21 million

Date: July 1999

Nippon Gohsei, a large Japanese chemical producer, pied guilty and agreed to pay a $21 million criminal fine for participating in a 17-year international conspiracy to suppress and eliminate competition in the foods preservatives industry.

In San Francisco, the Justice Department charged Nippon Gohsei Fine Chemicals Business Department with conspiring to fix, raise and maintain prices, and allocate market shares on sorbates sold by them and unnamed co-conspirators from 1979 to 1996.

Sorbates are chemical preservatives used primarily in high-moisture and high-sugar foods such as cheese and other dairy products, baked goods, and other processed foods.

Roughly $200 million worth of sorbates, including potassium sorbate and sorbic acid, are sold annually worldwide.

17. (tie) Pfizer Inc.

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $20 million

Date: July 1999

Pfizer Inc. pied guilty and agreed to pay criminal fines totaling $20 million for participating in two international price fixing conspiracies in the food additives industry.

Pfizer – the fourth largest pharmaceutical company in the United States – was charged with participating in a conspiracy to raise and fix prices and allocate market shares in the U.S. for a food preservative called sodium erythorbate, and to allocate customers and territories for a flavoring agent called maltol.

Federal officials charged Pfizer with conspiring with an unnamed sodium erythorbate producer to fix prices and allocate market shares on sodium erythorbate sales in the United States from 1992 to 1994.

Federal officials also charged the corporation with conspiring with an unnamed maltol producer to allocate customers and territories for sales of maltol in the United States and elsewhere from 1989 until 1995.

Sodium erythorbate is a chemical food preservative used to protect the color and flavor of meat, vegetables and processed foods.

Maltol is a chemical food flavoring agent used primarily in fruit and caramel-flavored candies and beverages.

The two conspiracies affected more than $65 million in U.S. commerce.

17. (tie) Summitville Consolidated Mining Co. Inc.

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $20 million

Date: May 1996

The Summitville Consolidated Mining Co. Inc. pied guilty to 40 counts of violating the Clean Water Act and other federal statutes at its Summitville Gold Mine operation in southwestern Colorado from 1984 to 1992.

The company was fined $20 million in connection with the plea deal.

The company pied guilty to one count of conspiracy, four counts of making false statements, five counts of failing to report under the Clean Water Act and 30 counts of knowingly violating the Clean Water Act by making unauthorized discharges to waters of the United States.

As part of the plea agreement, Summitville agreed to pay the maximum criminal fine of $500,000 on each count, for a total fine of $20 million.

Summitville, which opened in 1986, introduced a technology called “cyanide leaching” to extract gold from ore. This process, invented in Scotland and first used in South Africa, involves spraying cyanide solution on the ore to extract gold.

The cyanide waste that was left over was supposed to be stored in lined and covered ponds to prevent contact with local animals which can die if they drink the water. However, the cyanide solution did not stay in the ponds but leaked through the lining into nearby creeks.

By 1990, a 16-mile stretch of the Alamosa River was biologically dead.

19. (tie) Lucas Western Inc.

Type of Crime: False Statements

Criminal Fine: $18.5 million

Date: January 1995

Lucas Western Industries, Inc., a subsidiary of Lucas Industries plc, the British defense contractor, pied guilty to 37 counts of submitting false statements to the U.S. Department of Defense and paid a criminal fine of $18.5 million.

As part of the plea agreement, Summitville agreed to pay the maximum criminal fine of $500,000 on each count, for a total fine of $20 million.

Summitville, which opened in 1986, introduced a technology called “cyanide leaching” to extract gold from ore. This process, invented in Scotland and first used in South Africa, involves spraying cyanide solution on the ore to extract gold.

The cyanide waste that was left over was supposed to be stored in lined and covered ponds to prevent contact with local animals which can die if they drink the water. However, the cyanide solution did not stay in the ponds but leaked through the lining into nearby creeks.

By 1990, a 16-mile stretch of the Alamosa River was biologically dead.

19. (tie) Lucas Western Inc.

Type of Crime: False Statements

Criminal Fine: $18.5 million

Date: January 1995

Lucas Western Industries, Inc., a subsidiary of Lucas Industries plc, the British defense contractor, pied guilty to 37 counts of submitting false statements to the U.S. Department of Defense and paid a criminal fine of $18.5 million.

19. (tie) Rockwell International Corporation

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $18.5 million

Date: March 1992

Rockwell International Corporation pied guilty to 10 counts of environmental crimes at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant near Boulder, Colorado.

Rockwell pied guilty to four felony violations of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and to one felony and five misdemeanors of the Clean Water Act.

I have listed the first 20, from there I am only listing the pharmaceutical, vitamin, food or health fraud. Interestingly enough Anjimoto is listed #30 in the criminal top 100 (see my article on MSG, Aspartame and Anjimoto http://naturalpainreliefforfibromyalgia.com/300):

27. Copley Pharmaceutical, Inc.

Type of Crime: Food and drug

Criminal Fine: $10.65 million

Date: May 1997

28. Lonza AG

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $10.5 million

Date: March 1999

A Swiss vitamin manufacturer and five U.S. executives pied guilty and agreed to cooperate in the government’s ongoing investigation of illegal collusive practices in the international vitamin industry.

29) Kimberly Home Health Care Inc.

Type of Crime: Fraud

Criminal Fine: $10.08 million

Date: July 1999

Olsten Corporation and a subsidiary, Kimberly Home Health Care, Inc., agreed to pay $61 million to settle allegations that both companies defrauded the Medicare program.

30. (tie) Ajinomoto Co. Inc.

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $10 million

Date: October 1996

Ajinomoto Co. Inc., pied guilty to suppressing and eliminating competition in the lysine market from June 1992 through June 27, 1995 in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act.

Lysine is an amino acid used by farmers as a feed additive to ensure the proper growth of livestock. It is a $600 million a year industry worldwide.

30. (tie) Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd.

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $10 million

Date: October 1996

30. (tie) Warner-Lambert Company

Type of Crime: Food and drug

Criminal Fine: $10 million

Date: November 1998

44. (tie) Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation

Type of Crime: Obstruction of justice

Criminal Fine: $5 million

Date: January 1995

52. (tie) Tyson Foods Inc.

Type of Crime: Public corruption

Criminal Fine: $4 million

Date: December 1997

Tyson Foods Inc., the world’s largest chicken products company, pied guilty to giving former Secretary of Agriculture Mike Espy over $12,000 in gratuities and agreed to pay $6 million in fines and investigative expenses.

58. (tie) United States Sugar Corporation

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $3.75 million

Date: December 1991

United States Sugar Corporation pied guilty to eight felony environmental counts and was fined $3.75 million.

Federal officials charged U.S. Sugar with eight felonies involving the illegal disposal and transportation of hazardous wastes.

58. (tie) Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA)

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $3.75 million

Date: July 1991

The Aluminum Company of America pied guilty to environmental crimes and paid $7.5 million in fines for hazardous waste and other violations at the company’s facility in Massena, New York.

62. (tie) Bristol-Myers Squibb

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $3 million

Date: April 1992

Bristol-Myers Squibb, one of the world’s largest pharmaceutical companies, pied guilty to charges of illegally discharging pollutants into Syracuse, New York area waters.

The company paid $3.5 million in criminal fines and penalties and agreed to built a pre-treatment facility that will cost at least $10 million.

The company admitted to discharging chemical pollutants into the Onondaga County Metropolitan Treatment Plant in September and October 1987 in violation of the federal Clean Water Act.

62. (tie) Chemical Waste Management Inc.

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $3 million

Date: October 1992

Chemical Waste Management Inc., a unit of Waste Management Inc., pied guilty to six felony violations of the federal Superfund law, for the company’s failure to notify the government about reportable quantities of hazardous wastes that were released into the environment.

Federal officials alleged that the company knowingly and intentionally crushed numerous drums containing hazardous substances in order to speed up a clean-up project outside Scranton, Pennsylvania.

70. (tie) John Morrell and Company

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $2 million

Date: February 1996

John Morrell and Company pied guilty to dumping slaughterhouse waste into the Big Sioux River in Sioux Falls, South Dakota and deliberately submitting phony test data and discharge reports to conceal its crimes.

77. (tie) Blue Shield of California

Type of Crime: Fraud

Criminal Fine: $1.5 million

Date: April 1996

Blue Shield of California pied guilty to three felony counts in connection with efforts by various Blue Shield employees to conceal claims processing errors from Medicare examiners over a six-year period.

The company was fined $1.5 million.

Federal officials charged that Blue Shield, acting through employees in its Medicare Division, conspired to obstruct audits conducted in connection with Blue Shield’s Medicare Part B contract with the Health Care Financing Administration.

77. (tie) Browning-Ferris Inc.

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $1.5 million

Date: June 1998

Browning-Ferris Inc. (BFI) pied guilty to failing to notify the District of Columbia that it discharged contaminated wastewater from its medical waste facility into Washington, D.C.’s sewer system.

BFI was fined $1.5 million and agreed to a nationwide program to ensure its medical waste facilities are complying with the law.

Federal officials charged the company with discharging contaminated wastewater from it’s Capitol Processing Plant in violation of the Clean Water Act. The plant is a medical waste facility located in northeast Washington, D.C.

77. (tie) Odwalla Inc.

Type of Crime: Food and drug

Criminal Fine: $1.5 million

Date: July 1998

Odwalla, Inc., the company with a reputation for making pure, clean, and nutritious juice drinks, pied guilty to violating federal food safety laws and agreed to pay a $1.5 million fine for selling contaminated apple juice that killed a 16-month old girl and injured at least 70 others.

The fine is the largest criminal fine for a food injury case in the history of the Food and Drug Administration and the first such criminal conviction obtained in the wake of a large-scale pathogenic outbreak.

Odwalla pied guilty to 16 counts of “delivery of adulterated food products for introduction into interstate commerce.”

The company was sentenced to five years of supervised probation.

77. (tie) Unocal Corporation

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $1.5 million

Date: March 1994

Unocal Corporation pied no contest to three criminal pollution charges and agreed to pay a $1.5 million criminal fine for leaking petroleum thinner into the ocean and groundwater at its Guadalupe, California oil field.

The company was found guilty of discharging up to 8.5 million gallons of petroleum over a 40-year period.

82. (tie) Eastman Kodak

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $1 million

Date: April 1990

Eastman Kodak Company pied guilty to state criminal charges of unlawful dealing in hazardous wastes and failure to properly notify authorities of a chemical spill.

The charges grew out of a spill of about 5,100 gallons of methylene chloride in February 1987 and the failure of the company to immediately notify government officials of the spill.

Neighborhood groups fighting Kodak were disappointed with the $1 million criminal fine. “It’s equivalent to you or I getting a jaywalking ticket,” said Joseph Polito, a neighboring resident.

86. Hyundai Motor Company

Type of Crime: Campaign finance

Criminal Fine: $600,000

Date: December 1995

Hyundai Motor America pled guilty to charges of violating the Federal Election Campaign Act in connection with illegal contributions to the 1992 Jay Kim for Congress Campaign.

A federal grand jury in Los Angeles indicted Hyundai on charges of making prohibited corporate contributions, illegal contributions through employee conduits, and prohibited foreign national contributions to the 1992 Jay Kim for Congress Campaign Committee.

Under federal law, it is illegal for corporations and foreign nationals to contribute to candidates in federal elections and it is illegal to make contributions under the name of another.

The company was fined $600,000.

91. (tie) Cerestar Bioproducts BV

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $400,000

Date: June 1998

Citric acid is a flavor additive and preservative produced from various sugars. It is found in soft drinks, processed foods, detergents, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetic products. Citric acid is a $1.2 billion a year industry worldwide.

96. (tie) Andrew and Williamson Sales Co.

Type of crime: Food and drug

Criminal fine: $200,000

Date: November 1997

A strawberry distributor and its president pied guilty to crimes in connection with the March 1997 hepatitis outbreak that contaminated 198 school children and teachers in Michigan, Maine and Wisconsin.

Andrew and Williamson Sales Co. (A&W), and its president, Frederick Williamson, admitted their role in the fraudulent sale of 1.7 million pounds of Mexican grown strawberries to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s school lunch program.

As part of a parallel civil settlement, the company agreed to pay the government $1.3 million in civil damages.

The company was fined $200,000.

THE TOP 100 CORPORATE CRIMINALS OF THE 1990s

1) F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.

Criminal Fine: $500 million

2) Daiwa Bank Ltd.

Criminal Fine: $340 million

3) BASF Aktiengesellschaft

Criminal Fine: $225 million

4) SGL Carbon Aktiengesellschaft (SGLAG)

Criminal Fine: $135 million

5) Exxon Corporation and Exxon Shipping

Criminal Fine: $125 million

6) UCAR International, Inc.

Criminal Fine: $110 million

7) Archer Daniels Midland

Criminal Fine: $100 million

8)(tie) Banker’s Trust

Criminal Fine: $60 million

8)(tie) Sears Bankruptcy Recovery Management Services

Criminal Fine: $60 million

10) Haarman & Reimer Corp.

Criminal fine: $50 million

11) Louisiana-Pacific Corporation

Criminal Fine: $37 million

12) Hoechst AG

Criminal Fine: $36 million

13) Damon Clinical Laboratories, Inc.

Criminal Fine: $35.2 million

14) C.R. Bard Inc.

Criminal Fine: $30.9 million

15) Genentech Inc.

Criminal Fine: $30 million

16) Nippon Gohsei

Criminal Fine: $21 million

17)(tie) Pfizer Inc.

Criminal Fine: $20 million

17)(tie) Summitville Consolidated Mining Co. Inc.

Criminal Fine: $20 million

19)(tie) Lucas Western Inc.

Criminal Fine: $18.5 million

19)(tie) Rockwell International Corporation

Criminal Fine: $18.5 million

21) Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.

Criminal Fine: $18 million

22) Teledyne Industries Inc.

Criminal Fine: $17.5 million

Every year, the major business magazines put out their annual surveys of big business in the United States.

You have the Fortune 500, the Forbes 400, the Forbes Platinum 100, the International 800 – among others.

These lists rank big corporations by sales, assets, profits and market share. The point of these surveys is simple – to identify and glorify the biggest and most profitable corporations.

The point of the list contained in this article is to focus public attention on a wave of corporate criminality that has swamped prosecutors offices around the country.

This is the dark underside of the marketplace that is given little sustained attention and analysis by politicians and news outlets.

This compilation of the top 100 corporate criminals of the 1990s uses the most narrow and conservative of definitions – corporations that have pied guilty or no contest to crimes and have been criminally fined in the United States.

The 100 corporate criminals fell into 14 categories of crime: environmental (38), antitrust (20), fraud (13), campaign finance (7), food and drug (6), financial crimes (4), false statements (3), illegal exports (3), illegal boycott (1), worker death (1), bribery (1), obstruction of justice (1), public corruption (1) and tax evasion (1).

This list does not try to assess and compare the damage committed by these corporate criminals or by other corporate wrongdoers.

There are millions of people in the United States who care about morality in the marketplace.

But few realize that when they buy Exxon stock, or when they fill up at an Exxon gas station, they are in fact supporting a criminal recidivist corporation.

And few realize that when they take a ride on a cruise ship owned by Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines, they are riding on a ship owned by a criminal recidivist corporation.

Six corporations that made the list of the top 100 corporate criminals were criminal recidivist companies during the 1990s.

In addition to Exxon and Royal Caribbean, Rockwell International, Warner-Lambert, Teledyne and United Technologies each pied guilty to more than one crime during the 1990s.

CORPORATE CRIME AND JUSTICE

A few caveats about the top 100 list.

Caveat one: Big companies that are criminally prosecuted represent only the tip of a very large iceberg of corporate wrongdoing.

For every company convicted of health care fraud, there are numerous others who get away with ripping off Medicare and Medicaid, or face only mild slap-on-the-wrist fines and civil penalties when caught.

For every company convicted of polluting the nation’s waterways, there are many others who are not prosecuted because they do not get caught or because their corporate defense lawyers are able to offer up a low-level employee to go to jail in exchange for a promise from prosecutors not to touch the company or high-level executives.

For every corporation convicted of bribery or of giving money directly to a public official in violation of federal law, there are thousands who give money legally through political action committees to candidates and political parties. They profit from a system that effectively has legalized bribery.

For every corporation convicted of selling illegal pesticides, there are countless more who are not prosecuted because their lobbyists have worked their way in Washington to ensure that dangerous pesticides remain legal.

For every corporation convicted of reckless homicide in the death of a worker, there are hundreds of others that don’t even get investigated for reckless homicide when a worker is killed on the job. Only a few district attorneys across the country (Michael McCann, the DA in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, being one) regularly investigate workplace deaths as homicides.

Caveat two: Corporations define the laws under which they live.

For example, the automobile industry over the past 30 years has worked its will on Congress to block legislation that would impose criminal sanctions on knowing and willful violations of the federal auto safety laws. Now, if an auto company is caught violating the law, and if the cops are not asleep at the wheel, only a civil fine is imposed.

Caveat three: Because of their immense political power, big corporations have the resources to defend themselves in courts of law and in the court of public opinion.

Few prosecutors are willing to subject themselves to the constant legal and public relations barrage that a corporation’s well connected and high-priced legal talent can inflict.

It is a testament to the tenacity of a few dedicated federal prosecutors that Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines, for example, was criminally convicted of polluting the oceans.

In the criminal prosecution of Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines, the company faced a team of two federal criminal prosecutors.

To defend itself, Royal Caribbean hired Judson Starr and Jerry Block, both of whom have served as head of the Justice Department’s Environmental Crimes Section, and former Attorney General Benjamin Civiletti.

Also representing Royal Caribbean were former federal prosecutors Kenneth C. Bass III and Norman Moscowitz. Donald Carr of Winthrop & Stimson also joined the defense team.

Hired on as experts on international law issues were former Attorney General Eliot Richardson, University of Virginia law professor John Norton Moore, former State Department officials Terry Leitzell and Bernard Oxman, and four retired senior admirals.

As the case proceeded to trial, Royal Caribbean engaged in a massive public relations campaign, taking out ads during the Super Bowl, putting former Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrators on its board of directors and donating thousands of dollars to environmental groups.

Federal prosecutors overcame this legal and public relations barrage and convicted the company. But that was an unusual prosecution and unusually determined prosecutors.

SUITE CRIME VS. STREET CRIME

While the 1990s was a decade of booming markets and booming profits, it was also a decade of rampant corporate criminality.

There is an emerging consensus among corporate criminologists: corporate crime and violence inflicts far more damage on society than all street crime combined.

The FBI estimates, for example, that burglary and robbery- street crimes – costs the United States $3.8 billion a year.

Compare this to the hundreds of billions of dollars stolen from people in the United States as a result of corporate and white-collar fraud.

Health care fraud alone costs U.S. citizens $100 billion to $400 billion a year.

The savings and loan fraud – which former Attorney General Dick Thornburgh called “the biggest white-collar swindle in history” – cost anywhere from $300 billion to $500 billion.

And then there are lesser frauds: auto repair fraud, $40 billion a year, securities fraud, $15 billion a year – and on down the list.

Recite this list of corporate frauds and people will immediately say you can’t compare street crime and corporate crime – corporate crime is not violent crime.

Unfortunately, corporate crime is often violent crime.

The FBI estimates that 19,000 people are murdered every year in the United States.

Compare this to the 56,000 people in the United States who die every year on the job or from occupational diseases such as black lung and asbestosis and the tens of thousands of others who fall victim to the silent violence of pollution, contaminated foods, hazardous consumer products and hospital malpractice.

These deaths are often the result of criminal recklessness. They are sometimes prosecuted as homicides or as criminal violations of federal laws.

And environmental crimes often result in death, disease and injury.

In 1998, for example, a Tampa, Florida company and the company’s plant manager were found guilty of violating a federal hazardous waste law. Those illegal acts resulted in the deaths of two nine-year-old boys who were playing in a dumpster at the company’s facility.

This article’s list is only a tiny step in an effort to fill a great void in corporate crime research.

The Justice Department has the information and should get the budget to begin putting out yearly reports on corporate crime.

Every year, the Justice Department puts out an annual report titled “Crime in the United States.”

But by “Crime in the United States,” the Justice Department means “street crime in the United States.”

“Crime in the United States” reports on burglary, robbery and theft. There is nothing in it about price-fixing, corporate fraud, pollution or public corruption.

A yearly Justice Department report on corporate crime in the United States is long overdue.

1. F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $500 million

Date: May 1999

The Swiss pharmaceutical giant, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., pied guilty and agreed to pay a record $500 million criminal fine for leading a worldwide conspiracy to raise and fix prices and allocate market shares for certain vitamins sold in the United States and elsewhere.

In Dallas, the Department of Justice charged the company with conspiring to fix, raise and maintain prices, and to allocate the sales volumes of vitamins sold by them and other unnamed co-conspirator companies in the United States and elsewhere.

Federal officials also allege that the company allocated contracts for vitamin premixes for customers throughout the United States and rigged the bids for those contracts.

The conspiracy lasted from January 1990 into February 1999 and affected the vitamins most commonly used as nutritional supplements or to enrich human food and animal feed – vitamins A, B2, B5, C, E and Beta Carotene.

Vitamin premixes, which are used to enrich breakfast cereals and numerous other processed foods were also affected by the conspiracy, the Department said.

2. Daiwa Bank Ltd.

Type of Crime: Fraud

Criminal Fine: $340 million

Date: February 1996

Daiwa Bank Ltd. pied guilty to 16 federal felonies and paid a $340 million criminal fine – at the time, the largest criminal fine ever imposed in the United States.

Federal officials charged that the bank and bank officials sought to cover-up massive securities trading losses on two separate occasions and deceive and defraud bank regulators.

Daiwa pled guilty to two counts of conspiracy to defraud the United States and the Federal Reserve Bank, one count of misprison of a felony, 10 counts of falsifying bank books and records, two counts of wire fraud and one count of obstructing a bank examination.

Mary Jo White, the U.S. Attorney in Manhattan, told reporters that her office made many efforts to obtain the bank’s cooperation in the criminal investigation, “but no meaningful cooperation was ever given.”

“These corporate crimes represent companies at their highest levels acting at their worst,” White said. “What we aim for in law enforcement in the corporate context is good corporate citizenship, cooperation and openness with authorities, and genuine efforts to improve a corporate culture that has led to the problems and crimes under investigation. Unfortunately, until today’s guilty pleas, we had the opposite from Daiwa.”

3. BASF Aktiengesellschaft

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $225 million

Date: May 1999

A German company, BASF Aktiengesellschaft, pied guilty and agreed to pay a $225 million criminal fine for leading a worldwide conspiracy to raise and fix prices and allocate market shares for certain vitamins sold in the United States and elsewhere. BASF pied guilty in connection with the same case as the top corporate criminal – Hoffman LaRoche.

In Dallas, the Department of Justice charged the company with conspiring to fix, raise, and maintain prices, and allocate the sales volumes of vitamins sold by them and other unnamed co-conspirator companies in the United States and elsewhere.

Federal officials also allege that the company allocated contracts for vitamin premixes for customers throughout the United States and rigged the bids for those contracts.

The conspiracy lasted from January 1990 into February 1999 and affected the vitamins most commonly used as nutritional supplements or to enrich human food and animal feed – vitamins A, B2, B5, C, E and Beta Carotene.

Vitamin premixes, which are used to enrich breakfast cereals and numerous other processed foods were also affected by the conspiracy, the Department said.

4. SGL Carbon Aktiengesellschaft (SGL AG)

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $135 million

Date: May 1999

SGL Carbon Aktiengesellschaft (SGL AG), the world’s largest producer of graphite and carbon products, pied guilty to antitrust crimes and agreed to pay a record $135 million fine for participating in an international conspiracy to fix prices and allocate the volume of graphite electrodes in the United States and elsewhere.

Graphite electrodes are large columns used in electric arc furnaces in steel-making “mini-mills.”

5. Exxon Corporation and Exxon Shipping

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $125 million

Date: March 1991

Exxon Corporation and Exxon Shipping pied guilty to federal criminal charges in connection with the March 24, 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill.

The company was assessed a $125 million criminal fine.

Attorney General Dick Thornburgh called the fine “the largest single environmental criminal recovery ever enacted.”

The companies pied guilty to misdemeanor violations of federal environmental laws.

Approximately 11 million gallons of crude oil spilled from the Valdez, fouling 700 miles of Alaska shoreline, killing birds and fish, and destroying the way of life of thousands of Native Americans.

6. UCAR International, Inc.

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $110 million

Date: April 1998

UCAR International, Inc. (UCAR), the largest producer of graphite electrodes in the United States, was charged with participating in an international cartel to fix the price and allocate the volume of graphite electrodes sold in the United States and elsewhere.

The company pied guilty and agreed to pay a $110 million criminal fine.

UCAR was charged with violating the Sherman Act by conspiring with unnamed co-conspirators to suppress and eliminate competition.

According to the charges, UCAR and the other companies began to fix prices and allocate their market shares for graphite electrodes in the United States and elsewhere at least as early as July 1992, and continued until at least June 1997.

As a result, steel makers paid noncompetitive and higher prices for graphite electrodes used in manufacturing products that are integral to a variety of business and consumer items.

Graphite electrodes are large columns used in electric arc furnaces in steel-making “mini-mills” to generate the intense heat necessary to melt and further refine steel. Nine electrodes, joined in columns of three, are used in the typical electric arc furnace to melt scrap steel.

7. Archer Daniels Midland

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $100 million

Date: October 1996

Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) pied guilty and paid a $100 million criminal fine – at the time, the largest criminal antitrust fine ever – for its role in conspiracies to fix prices to eliminate competition and allocate sales in the lysine and citric acid markets worldwide.

Federal officials said that as a result of ADM’s crime, seed companies, large poultry and swine producers and ultimately farmers paid millions more to buy the lysine additive.

In addition, manufacturers of soft drinks, processed foods, detergents and others paid millions more to buy the citric acid additive, which ultimately caused consumers to pay more for those products.

Lysine is an amino acid used by farmers as a feed additive to ensure the proper growth of livestock. It is a $600 million a year industry worldwide.

Citric acid is a flavor additive and preservative produced from various sugars. It is found in soft drinks, processed food, detergents, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Citric acid is a $1.2 billion a year industry worldwide.

8. (tie) Banker’s Trust

Type of Crime: Financial

Criminal Fine: $60 million

Date: March 1999

Bankers Trust was fined $60 million for its role in a scheme by high-ranking bank officials to enhance the bank’s financial performance by falsely recording approximately $19.1 million in unclaimed customer funds as the bank’s income and reserves.

Bankers Trust pied guilty to three counts of making false entries in bank books and records.

In addition to the $19.1 million fine, Bankers Trust was forced to return $17.85 million of the approximately $19.1 million unlawfully recorded as the bank’s income and reserves to their rightful owners. Bankers Trust’s plan to return the remaining balance of the $19.1 million will be supervised by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

Three Bankers Trust executives were indicted in the case.

“Bankers Trust’s guilty plea should send a strong signal to all companies that negative consequences will flow from putting pressure on their executives and employees to generate revenues and meet expense targets with any means necessary,” said U.S. Attorney Mary Jo White. “While a corporation, especially a financial institution – naturally expresses concern and interest in the bottom line, it must at the same time ensure that it fosters a corporate culture requiring strict compliance with all applicable legal and ethical obligations.”

8. (tie) Sears Bankruptcy Recovery Management Services

Type of Crime: Fraud

Criminal Fine: $60 million

Date: February 1999

Sears Bankruptcy Recovery Management Services, a unit of Sears, Roebuck and Company, pied guilty to one count of bankruptcy fraud involving fraudulent reaffirmation practices that began in 1985 and continued until early 1997. Sears also agreed to pay a $60 million fine.

Sears has already paid over $180 million in restitution to about 188,000 debtors and $40 million in civil fines to 50 state attorneys general.

The $60 million criminal fine is the largest fine ever to be paid in a bankruptcy fraud case. The fine also is believed to be the largest criminal fine ever in Massachusetts, and one of the largest nationwide.

“Sears intentionally misled bankrupt debtors without attorneys and defrauded the Bankruptcy Court for over a decade,” said U.S. Attorney Donald Stern said. “This was not the haphazard action of a few employees. It represented an outrageous company policy, carried out by those responsible for debt collection, which plainly violated federal law.”

The fraudulent scheme involved Sears’ practices relating to bankruptcy reaffirmation agreements. Such reaffirmation agreements, when executed in compliance with the Bankruptcy Code, have the effect of maintaining legally binding debts which would otherwise be discharged in bankruptcy. The discharge of debts is the principal benefit to a debtor filing for bankruptcy. The discharge prohibits all creditors from taking any collection action against the debtor for prebankruptcy debts that are not reaffirmed.

According to the criminal charges filed by the U.S. Attorney, beginning in 1985 and continuing until April, 1997, Sears and its subsidiary unit engaged in a scheme to induce bankruptcy debtors to enter into reaffirmation agreements concerning their credit card debts with Sears and lead them to believe that the agreements would be filed with the Bankruptcy Court and were binding contractual obligations, when in fact the agreements were not going to be filed and the debtors had no obligation to pay the debt.

10. Haarman & Reimer Corp.

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal fine: $50 million

Date: February 1997

Haarman & Reimer Corp., a New Jersey-based subsidiary of the Germany-based pharmaceutical and chemical giant Bayer AG, pied guilty and agreed to pay a $50 million criminal fine for participating in an international conspiracy to fix prices and allocate sales in the citric acid market worldwide.

“This $50 million criminal fine sends a clear message to corporations around the world,” said Attorney General Janet Reno.

“We will not tolerate international conspiracies that defraud American consumers, and those companies that engage in collusive conduct will be punished.”

11 Louisiana-Pacific Corporation

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $37 million

Date: June 1998

Louisiana-Pacific Corporation pied guilty to 18 felonies, was fined $37 million, and was placed on five years probation.

The plea agreement, cut with the U.S. Attorney in Colorado, capped a six-year investigation of the nation’s largest producer of oriented stranded board (OSB), a laminated structural wood panel that is used as a plywood substitute in residential and commercial construction.

The criminal investigation began in July 1992, when Dave Horan, a former Louisiana-Pacific supervisor at its Montrose, Colorado facility, filed a lawsuit against the company alleging that he had been fired because he refused to tamper with the Montrose mill’s pollution monitoring equipment.

The investigation expanded to include both environmental and consumer fraud violations.

In its plea agreement, the company admitted it committed numerous criminal acts, including conspiring to violate the Clean Air Act and False Statement Act, tampering with the Montrose mill’s air pollution monitor on 12 occasions by inserting foil into the monitor, pulling a protective lens off the monitor, miscalibrating the monitor and turning it off, lying to the Colorado Department of Health about the number of times the Montrose mill violated the limits of its pollution permits, creating and submitting to the American Plywood Association non-representative samples of OSB that the Association used in its on-going quality assurance testing from 1990 to 1994, and misrepresenting to its customers that its OSB conformed to the quality assurance testing requirements of the Association.

12. Hoechst AG

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $36 million

Date: May 1999

The German chemical and pharmaceutical giant Hoechst AG pied guilty and agreed to pay a $36 million criminal fine for participating in a 17-year international conspiracy to fix prices and allocate market shares on the sale of sorbates in the United States and elsewhere.

Federal officials charged Hoechst AG and Bernd Romahn, former marketing manager of Hoechst’s Food Ingredients Business Unit, with conspiring with unnamed sorbates producers to suppress and eliminate competition in the sorbates industry from 1979 until 1996.

In addition to the $36 million fine against the corporation, Romahn has agreed to plead guilty and pay a $250,000 criminal fine for his role in the conspiracy. As part of the plea agreements, Hoechst and Romahn have agreed to cooperate in the ongoing government investigation.

13. Damon Clinical Laboratories, Inc.

Type of Crime: Fraud

Criminal Fine: $35.2 million

Date: October 1996

Damon Clinical Laboratories, Inc., a unit of Corning Inc., pied guilty to a one-count criminal information charging the company with conspiring to defraud the United States by submitting false claims to the Medicare program.

Corning paid $119 million in fines and penalties – $35.2 million as a criminal fine and $83.7 to resolve related civil liabilities.

Federal officials said that the $119 million payment represents a recovery of three dollars for every one dollar that the company stole from federal and state health care programs.

“Faced with declining profits and a changing health care marketplace, Damon decided to cheat the Medicare program,” said U.S. Attorney Donald Stern. “It did so by submitting literally millions of fraudulent claims for payment to federal and state health care programs for medically unnecessary laboratory tests. What was marketed as a LabScan was actually a massive lab scam.”

Federal officials charged that the company bundled three different tests with certain blood panels, causing doctors to order tests that were not medically necessary for the treatment and diagnosis of Medicare beneficiaries.

After physicians had ordered the medically unnecessary tests, Damon then billed Medicare for the bundled tests, knowing that the tests were in fact not necessary.

14. C.R. Bard Inc.

Type of Crime: Food and drug

Criminal Fine: $30.9 million

Date: October 1993

C.R. Bard Inc., a heart catheter manufacturer, pied guilty to a 391-count criminal charge for marketing an unapproved medical device that caused at least 10 patients to undergo emergency heart surgery and at least one death.

The company paid $60.1 million in fines and penalties, including a $30.9 million criminal fine.

A heart catheter is a wire with a balloon-like tip which is temporarily threaded into a person’s coronary arteries by a doctor and then inflated in order to flatten material which is clogging the artery. The device widens the path through which blood can flow to the heart muscle.

The company pied guilty to conducting illegal experiments on people with the unapproved catheters, including illegal testing of catheters on people for the purpose of determining whether the catheters were safe and effective.

About 22,000 people had used the catheters before they were recalled in 1990.

15 Genentech Inc.

Type of Crime: Food and drug

Criminal Fine: $30 million

Date: April 1999

Genentech Inc., the San Francisco-based biotech and pharmaceutical company, pied guilty to marketing to doctors one of its most lucrative prescription drugs, Protropin, for uses which had not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Genentech paid a $30 million criminal fine and $20 million in civil penalties.

Genentech admitted that from 1985 to 1994, it aggressively marketed Protropin, a synthetic human growth hormone, to doctors, hospitals, and others for use in the treatment of various medical conditions for which Protropin had not received FDA approval.

It is illegal under federal law for a drug company to market a drug for purposes which the FDA has not approved based on research and clinical trials.

16. Nippon Gohsei

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $21 million

Date: July 1999

Nippon Gohsei, a large Japanese chemical producer, pied guilty and agreed to pay a $21 million criminal fine for participating in a 17-year international conspiracy to suppress and eliminate competition in the foods preservatives industry.

In San Francisco, the Justice Department charged Nippon Gohsei Fine Chemicals Business Department with conspiring to fix, raise and maintain prices, and allocate market shares on sorbates sold by them and unnamed co-conspirators from 1979 to 1996.

Sorbates are chemical preservatives used primarily in high-moisture and high-sugar foods such as cheese and other dairy products, baked goods, and other processed foods.

Roughly $200 million worth of sorbates, including potassium sorbate and sorbic acid, are sold annually worldwide.

17. (tie) Pfizer Inc.

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $20 million

Date: July 1999

Pfizer Inc. pied guilty and agreed to pay criminal fines totaling $20 million for participating in two international price fixing conspiracies in the food additives industry.

Pfizer – the fourth largest pharmaceutical company in the United States – was charged with participating in a conspiracy to raise and fix prices and allocate market shares in the U.S. for a food preservative called sodium erythorbate, and to allocate customers and territories for a flavoring agent called maltol.

Federal officials charged Pfizer with conspiring with an unnamed sodium erythorbate producer to fix prices and allocate market shares on sodium erythorbate sales in the United States from 1992 to 1994.

Federal officials also charged the corporation with conspiring with an unnamed maltol producer to allocate customers and territories for sales of maltol in the United States and elsewhere from 1989 until 1995.

Sodium erythorbate is a chemical food preservative used to protect the color and flavor of meat, vegetables and processed foods.

Maltol is a chemical food flavoring agent used primarily in fruit and caramel-flavored candies and beverages.

The two conspiracies affected more than $65 million in U.S. commerce.

17. (tie) Summitville Consolidated Mining Co. Inc.

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $20 million

Date: May 1996

The Summitville Consolidated Mining Co. Inc. pied guilty to 40 counts of violating the Clean Water Act and other federal statutes at its Summitville Gold Mine operation in southwestern Colorado from 1984 to 1992.

The company was fined $20 million in connection with the plea deal.

The company pied guilty to one count of conspiracy, four counts of making false statements, five counts of failing to report under the Clean Water Act and 30 counts of knowingly violating the Clean Water Act by making unauthorized discharges to waters of the United States.

As part of the plea agreement, Summitville agreed to pay the maximum criminal fine of $500,000 on each count, for a total fine of $20 million.

Summitville, which opened in 1986, introduced a technology called “cyanide leaching” to extract gold from ore. This process, invented in Scotland and first used in South Africa, involves spraying cyanide solution on the ore to extract gold.

The cyanide waste that was left over was supposed to be stored in lined and covered ponds to prevent contact with local animals which can die if they drink the water. However, the cyanide solution did not stay in the ponds but leaked through the lining into nearby creeks.

By 1990, a 16-mile stretch of the Alamosa River was biologically dead.

19. (tie) Lucas Western Inc.

Type of Crime: False Statements

Criminal Fine: $18.5 million

Date: January 1995

Lucas Western Industries, Inc., a subsidiary of Lucas Industries plc, the British defense contractor, pied guilty to 37 counts of submitting false statements to the U.S. Department of Defense and paid a criminal fine of $18.5 million.

Lucas falsely certified to the Defense Department that gearboxes it manufactured had been fully inspected. In fact, many required inspections had not been performed.

The charges focused on faulty gearboxes for two military programs – the airframe mounted accessory drive for the Navy’s F/A-18 aircraft and the aximuth drive unit gearbox for the Army’s Multiple Launch Rocket System.

19. (tie) Rockwell International Corporation

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $18.5 million

Date: March 1992

Rockwell International Corporation pied guilty to 10 counts of environmental crimes at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant near Boulder, Colorado.

Rockwell pied guilty to four felony violations of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and to one felony and five misdemeanors of the Clean Water Act.

Federal officials charged that Rockwell illegally stored and treated hazardous wastes generated during the production of plutonium “triggers” and other components of nuclear weapons at Rocky Flats.

Federal officials also charged that Rockwell improperly and illegally discharged wastes through its sewage treatment plant, creating the potential for contamination by runoff to a reservoir used for drinking water.

21. Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $18 million

Date: July 1999

Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd., one of the world’s largest passenger cruise lines, pied guilty to 21 felony counts and agreed to pay a record $18 million criminal fine for dumping waste oil and hazardous chemicals and lying to the U.S. Coast Guard.

In a plea agreement, filed in federal courts in six cities, Royal Caribbean admitted that it routinely dumped waste oil from its fleet of cruise ships.

The company also pied guilty to the unprecedented charge that it deliberately dumped into U.S. harbors and coastal areas many other types of pollutants, including hazardous chemicals from photo processing equipment, dry cleaning shops and printing presses.

The $18 million fine is the largest ever to be paid by a cruise line in connection with polluting U.S. waters.

The plea agreements were filed in Miami, New York City, Los Angeles, Anchorage, St. Thomas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and San Juan, Puerto Rico.

“Royal Caribbean used our nation’s waters as its dumping ground, even as it promoted itself as an environmentally ‘green’ company,” said Attorney General Janet Reno. “This case will sound like a foghorn throughout the entire maritime industry.”

Under the terms of the plea agreement, the cruise ship operator will also plead guilty to deliberately storing waste from its ships at a Port of Miami pier without a permit, violating federal hazardous waste law.

Some hazardous materials, including toxic solvents from dry cleaning operations, were illegally placed in the garbage aboard the ships. The material was then either incinerated on the ship or dumped in U.S. or foreign ports mixed with ordinary garbage.

22. Teledyne Industries Inc.

Type of Crime: Fraud

Criminal Fine: $17.5 million

Date: October 1992

Teledyne Industries Inc. pied guilty to 35 counts of preparing and submitting false statements regarding the testing of electronic relays at its Teledyne Relays Division in Hawthorne, California.

Teledyne paid a $17.5 million criminal fine.

Federal officials alleged that the company sold commercial grade relay switches to the federal government while certifying that they had successfully met rigorous military testing requirements. The government pays a premium of nearly four times as much for the tested, military version of the switches as it would for the untested, commercial quality relay switch.

23. Northrop

Type of Crime: False statements

Criminal Fine: $17 million

Date: February 1990

Northrop pied guilty to 34 counts of providing false statements to the federal government over a three-year period in connection with two military programs – the Air Launched Cruise Missile and the Navy Harrier Jet.

24) Litton Applied Technology Division (ATD) and Litton Systems Canada (LSL)

Type of Crime: Fraud

Criminal Fine: $16.5 million

Date: June 1999

Two Litton Industries, Inc. units pied guilty to felony charges and agreed to pay $18.5 million in connection with the concealment of commissions paid to consultants who secured military sales to Taiwan and Greece.

Litton Applied Technology Division (ATD) and Litton Systems Canada (LSL) each pied guilty to one conspiracy count. LSL also pied guilty to additional charges of mail fraud and false statements.

The two Litton units agreed to pay $18.5 million – which includes $16.5 million in criminal fines and $2 million in restitution.

The federal case against the Litton units involves a long-running conspiracy to defraud agencies of the United States and Taiwan in connection with Litton’s military sales to governments of Taiwan and Greece.

25. Iroquois Pipeline Operating Company

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $15 million

Date: May 1996

The Connecticut-based Iroquois Pipeline Operating Company and four of its high-level officers and supervisors pied guilty to numerous criminal violations of the Clean Water Act, including failure to clean up or restore damage to nearly 200 streams and wetlands as a result of rushing to meet construction deadlines.

The company agreed to pay $22 million in criminal and civil fines – including a $15 million criminal fine – for violating federal environmental and safety laws.

The violations stem from the construction of one of the country’s longest natural gas pipelines running 370 miles from Canada through upstate New York and Connecticut to Long Island.

26. Eastman Chemical Company

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $11 million

Date: September 1998

Eastman Chemical Company pied guilty and agreed to pay an $11 million criminal fine for participating in an international price-fixing conspiracy in the food preservatives industry.

Roughly $200 million worth of sorbates, which include potassium sorbate and sorbic acid, is sold worldwide every year.

Sorbates are chemical preservatives used primarily as mold inhibitors in high-moisture and high-sugar foods such as cheese and other dairy products, baked goods, and other processed foods.

Eastman is headquartered in Kingsport, Tennessee.

Federal officials alleged that Eastman, through one or more of its employees, conspired with other unnamed sorbate producers to suppress and eliminate competition in the sorbates market.

The Department of Justice alleged that Eastman officials agreed with their co-conspirators on prices to be charged for sorbates sold in the United States.

The single-count felony charges the company with participating in conversations to discuss the price of sorbates sold in the United States, agreeing, during those conversations, to charge prices at certain levels and otherwise increase and maintain prices of sorbates sold in the United States, and issuing price announcements and price quotations in accordance with the agreements reached.

27. Copley Pharmaceutical, Inc.

Type of Crime: Food and drug

Criminal Fine: $10.65 million

Date: May 1997

Copley Pharmaceutical, Inc., a Massachusetts-based generic drug maker, pied guilty to one count of conspiracy to defraud the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and agreed to pay a fine of $10.65 million.

Federal officials said the investigation began after two brothers – Michael and Mark Riley – who worked for the company, “blew the whistle on their superiors and the company.”

A criminal information filed by the U.S. Attorney’s office in Boston charged the company with:

* changing manufacturing methods from those approved by the FDA for drugs, including prescription and over-the-counter drugs;

* falsifying manufacturing batch records to cover-up the manufacturing deviations;

* submitting false annual reports to the FDA for FDA-approved drugs which did not disclose the manufacturing changes; and

* failing to seek prior FDA approval for certain manufacturing changes.

28. Lonza AG

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $10.5 million

Date: March 1999

A Swiss vitamin manufacturer and five U.S. executives pied guilty and agreed to cooperate in the government’s ongoing investigation of illegal collusive practices in the international vitamin industry.

Federal officials charged the company, Lonza AG, with participating in a conspiracy to fix prices and allocate the volume of sales of vitamin B3 (niacin and niacinamide). The company agreed to pay a fine of $10.5 million for its role in the conspiracy.

The five executives were charged with participating in a conspiracy to fix prices and allocate customers and the sales of vitamin B4 (choline chloride). Vitamins B3 and B4 are used to enrich both animal and human nutritional products and are marketed worldwide.

In the Lonza case, federal officials alleged that company executives agreed with the other major vitamin B3 firms to suppress and eliminate competition in the Vitamin B3 market.

29) Kimberly Home Health Care Inc.

Type of Crime: Fraud

Criminal Fine: $10.08 million

Date: July 1999

Olsten Corporation and a subsidiary, Kimberly Home Health Care, Inc., agreed to pay $61 million to settle allegations that both companies defrauded the Medicare program. Olsten agreed to pay nearly $51 million as part of a civil settlement, and Kimberly will enter into criminal plea agreements in three districts and pay more than $10 million in criminal fines.

Kimberly pied guilty to three separate felony charges, which were filed in Florida and Georgia.

Kimberly pied guilty to conspiracy, mail fraud and violating the Medicare Anti-Kickback statute, and agreed to pay $10.08 million in criminal fines in connection with its scheme to defraud the Medicare program.

Kimberly’s parent company, Olsten, entered into a civil settlement agreement with the United States and agreed to pay $50.92 million to resolve its civil liability stemming from the same Medicare fraud schemes and an additional scheme in Brooklyn, New York.

Olsten and its subsidiaries own and operate management and staffing services for home health agencies in several states, including Florida and Georgia.

Federal officials alleged kickbacks and false Medicare billings made in connection with Kimberly’s receipt of fees from another company for Kimberly’s management of certain home health agencies.

30. (tie) Ajinomoto Co. Inc.

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $10 million

Date: October 1996

Ajinomoto Co. Inc., pied guilty to suppressing and eliminating competition in the lysine market from June 1992 through June 27, 1995 in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act.

Lysine is an amino acid used by farmers as a feed additive to ensure the proper growth of livestock. It is a $600 million a year industry worldwide.

30. (tie) Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI)

Type of Crime: Financial

Criminal Fine: $10 million

Date: January 1990

Two BCCI units pied guilty to 29 counts of laundering illegal drug profits. At the time of the indictment, Justice Department officials called the BCCI prosecution “the most important money laundering case in U.S. history.” Among the bank’s customers was Manuel Noriega.

Under the plea agreement, the two BCCI units, Bank of Credit and Commerce International S.A. and Bank of Credit and Commerce International (Overseas) Ltd. would forfeit $14.8 million in alleged drug profits and be placed on probation for five years.

BCCI was assessed $550 million in restitution, fines and penalties, including a $10 million criminal fine.

30. (tie) Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd.

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $10 million

Date: October 1996

Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd. pied guilty to suppressing and eliminating competition in the lysine market from June 1992 through June 27, 1995 in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act.

Lysine is an amino acid used by farmers as a feed additive to ensure the proper growth of livestock. It is a $600 million a year industry worldwide.

30. (tie) Warner-Lambert Company

Type of Crime: Food and drug

Criminal Fine: $10 million

Date: November 1998

Warner-Lambert Company, a Fortune 500 pharmaceutical manufacturer, pied guilty to one felony count and was sentenced to pay a $10 million criminal fine for fraudulently failing to notify the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) about persistent drug stability problems with certain prescription drugs.

Federal officials charged that the company violated federal law by fraudulently failing to report to the FDA drug stability failures concerning the prescription drug Dilantin, a widely used anti-epileptic medication.

34. General Electric

Type of Crime: Fraud

Criminal Fine: $9.5 million

Date: July 1992

General Electric Company pied guilty to charges of defrauding the federal government of $26.5 million in the sale of military equipment to Israel.

The company paid $69 million in fines, penalties and damages for committing the offenses. Of that, $9.5 million is a criminal fine.

The company pied guilty to diverting millions of dollars to a former Israeli Air Force General to assist GE in securing favorable treatment in connection with the F-16 program.

35. (tie) Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $9 million

Date: June 1998

Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd., one of the world’s largest passenger cruise lines, pied guilty to a fleet-wide conspiracy of dumping oil into the ocean and lying to the U.S. Coast Guard to cover up the crimes. The company was fined $9 million.

The plea agreement, which was filed in federal courts in Miami, Florida, and San Juan, Puerto Rico, was reached on the eve of trials scheduled in Miami and Puerto Rico on June 2 and 8, 1998.

Royal Caribbean president Jack Williams issued a strong statement accepting responsibility and apologizing for the company’s crimes.

Federal officials said that the conspiracy included using false oil record books. These logs were kept to record all overboard discharges. Some Royal Caribbean engineers had referred to the oil record books, which were presented to the Coast Guard during inspections in U.S. ports, as the “Eventyrbok,” which means “Fairytale book” in Norwegian.

The company also pied guilty to two counts of obstruction of justice – witness tampering (ordering an engineer to lie to a federal grand jury) and destroying evidence of a bypass pipe used to make illegal discharges from the cruise ship “Sovereign of the Seas.”

35. (tie) Showa Denko Carbon

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $9 million

Date: May 1999

Showa Denko Carbon, Inc. (SDC), a U.S. subsidiary of the Japanese firm Showa Financing KK, pied guilty to a charge of participating in an international cartel to fix the price and allocate the volume of graphite electrodes sold in the United States and elsewhere and was fined $9 million.

Graphite electrodes are large columns used in electric arc furnaces in steel-making “mini-mills.”

SDC is charged with violating the Sherman Antitrust Act by conspiring with unnamed co-conspirators to suppress and eliminate competition. According to the charges, SDC fixed prices and allocated market share for graphite electrodes in the United States and elsewhere from 1993 until January 1997.

37. IBM East Europe/Asia Ltd.

Type of Crime: Illegal exports

Criminal Fine: $8.5 million

Date: August 1998

A unit of IBM Corp. pied guilty in Washington, D.C. to a 17-count criminal information charging violations that the company unlawfully exported computers to a Russian nuclear lab.

The company, IBM East Europe/Asia Ltd., was sentenced to pay $8.5 million, the maximum fine authorized by law.

IBM East Europe/Asia Ltd., the Russian subsidiary of IBM, admitted that it sold and exported computers to Arzamas-16, the Russian nuclear lab, “having reason to believe that the computers would be used directly or indirectly in research on or development, design, manufacture, construction, testing or maintenance of nuclear explosive devices” in violation of federal export control laws.

38. Empire Sanitary Landfill Inc.

Type of crime: Campaign finance

Criminal fine: $8 million

Date: October 1997

Empire Sanitary Landfill Inc. pied guilty to making illegal campaign contributions and was fined $8 million, the largest criminal fine ever imposed in a federal election campaign finance fraud prosecution.

In Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, federal officials charged Empire with making $129,000 in illegal corporate contributions.

The money went to both the Dole and Clinton 1996 president campaigns and numerous Congressional campaigns, but the Dole campaign received the largest chunk of the money – $80,000 in illegal contributions in April and May 1995.

39. (tie) Colonial Pipeline Company

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $7 million

Date: February 1999

Colonial Pipeline Company, the operator of the largest hazardous liquid pipeline in the world, pied guilty to criminal charges in connection with a spill of almost one million gallons of oil into the Reedy River in South Carolina.

The company was fined $7 million and put on five years probation.

Colonial is owned by several of the world’s largest oil companies. Shareholders include Mobil, Texaco and Amoco.

The company pied guilty to a misdemeanor charge of violating the Clean Water Act when it failed to exercise reasonable care leading to the rupture of its pipeline where it crosses the Reedy River near Simpsonville, South Carolina.

Colonial Pipeline acknowledged that its actions led to the spill of about 960,000 gallons of diesel fuel affecting a 23-mile segment of the river. The spill killed about 35,000 fish and also affected wildlife such as beaver, muskrat and turtles, which died as a result of direct contact with the spilled oil.

39. (tie) Eklof Marine Corporation

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $7 million

Date: September 1997

A tugboat company, Eklof Marine Corporation, its president, the tugboat’s captain and two affiliated companies pled guilty to environmental crimes in connection with an 826,000 gallon oil spill off Rhode Island in 1996.

The spill caused substantial environmental damage, killing marine and bird life on Rhode Island’s south coast.

The North Cape barge, carrying four million gallons of home heating oil, ran aground after a fire broke out in the engine room of the Scandia tugboat, which was towing the North Cape to Providence.

The crew had to abandon the tug, leaving it and the barge adrift in a severe winter storm.

Eklof Marine Corporation, two affiliate companies, Eklof’s president and the tugboat’s captain admitted that their combined negligence caused the spill.

The companies agreed to pay $8.5 million in fines and conservation payments and will undertake a $1 million remedial safety program on any vessels navigating Rhode Island waters.

41. (tie) Chevron

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $6.5 million

Date: May 1992

Chevron pied guilty to 65 Clean Water Act violations and paid $8 million in criminal and civil fines.

The crimes were committed on Platform Grace, an oil drilling platform in the Santa Barbara Channel.

Of the $8 million, $6.5 million is a criminal penalty, and $1.5 million is a civil penalty.

Federal officials charged that Chevron discharged oil and grease in waste water that exceeded limits in its federal permit.

Chevron also admitted to diluting waste water prior to its being sampled, so as to understate the actual amount of oil and grease discharge which it reported to the Environmental Protection Administration.

41. (tie) Rockwell International Corporation

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $6.5 million

Date: April 1996

Rockwell International Corporation pied guilty to three felony counts and agreed to pay a $6.5 million fine in connection with a 1994 chemical explosion that killed two scientists at the firm’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory in Simi Hills, California.

Federal officials in Los Angeles charged that in June and July 1994, Rockwell’s Rocketdyne division illegally stored and disposed of hazardous waste at the facility. The waste in question, triaminoguanidine nitrate (TAGN), an explosive, was used as a gun propellant.

On July 26, 1994, two Rockwell scientists, Otto Heiney and Larry Pugh, were killed in an explosion at the facility.

For months following the blast, Rockwell officials claimed that Heiney and Pugh died while conducting legitimate experiments with explosives. But Rocketdyne President Paul Smith later admitted that the blast came as the two were illegally burning a volatile explosive to get rid of it.

43. Tokai Carbon Ltd. Co.

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $6 million

Date: May 1999

Tokai Carbon Ltd. Co. pied guilty to a charge of participating in an international cartel to fix the price and allocate the volume of graphite electrodes sold in the United States and elsewhere and was fined $6 million.

Graphite electrodes are large columns used in electric arc furnaces in steel-making “mini-mills.”

44. (tie) Allied Clinical Laboratories, Inc.

Type of Crime: Fraud

Criminal Fine: $5 million

Date: November 1996

Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings (LabCorp), headquartered in Burlington, North Carolina, agreed to pay $182 million to resolve allegations that it submitted false claims for medically unnecessary laboratory tests to federal and state health care programs.

Immediately before the announcement of the civil settlement, the San Diego Regional Laboratory of Allied Clinical Laboratories, Inc., which is now owned by LabCorp, pied guilty to submitting a false claim to Medicare and to the California Medicaid Program for an unnecessary blood test and was fined $5 million.

LabCorp entered into a pre-trial diversion program with the U.S. Attorney in North Carolina and a corporate integrity program with the Department of Health and Human Services.

The settlement is the largest single settlement under the qui tam provisions of the False Claims Act. The largest previous settlement was with United Technologies Corporation in 1994 for $150 million.

The LabCorp case came to the attention of law enforcement officials after a doctor noticed that the blood laboratory he was using routinely did tests that he neither needed nor wanted for his patients.

44. (tie) Northern Brands International Inc.

Type of Crime: Fraud

Criminal Fine: $5 million

Date: December 1998

Northern Brands International Inc., a unit of R.J. Reynolds Tobacco International Inc., pied guilty and agreed to pay a total of $15 million in criminal fines and forfeitures for aiding and abetting customers who evaded more than $2.5 million in U.S. excise taxes by fraudulently transporting within the United States cigarettes that were intended to be exported.

“This guilty plea may be the first time an affiliate of a major tobacco company has been convicted of a federal crime in the United States,” said U.S. Attorney Thomas Maroney in Binghamton, New York.

Northern Brands, which is headquartered in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, was charged with fraudulently moving 26 loads of Canadian cigarettes by representing to the U.S. Customs Service that the merchandise would be transported in the United States solely for exportation to the Republic of Estonia or the Republic of Russia.

44. (tie) Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation

Type of Crime: Obstruction of justice

Criminal Fine: $5 million

Date: January 1995

Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson, pied guilty to one count of conspiracy to obstruct justice, one count of obstruction of justice and eight counts of corruptly persuading employees to destroy documents relating to a federal investigation of the drug company’s Retin A public relations campaign.

The company was fined $5 million and ordered to pay restitution of $2.5 million.

The charges related to a Food and Drug Administration investigation into an extensive public relations campaign that generated publicity about Retin-A’s use in the treatment of sun-wrinkled, or photoaged, skin.

Retin-A was approved by the FDA in 1971 for the treatment of Acne. The FDA did not approve Retin-A for the use in treatment of photoaged skin.

The company admitted directing its employees to destroy documents relating to the Retin-A public relations campaign.

44. (tie) Unisys

Type of Crime: Bribery

Criminal Fine: $5 million

Date: September 1991

Unisys pled guilty to conspiracy to defraud the United States, bribery, conversion of government property, filing a false statement and filing false claims.

Unisys pled guilty to bribing three former high ranking Navy officials. The company was forced to pay a total of $190 million in criminal and civil fines and restitution.

44. (tie) Georgia Pacific Corporation

Type of Crime: Tax evasion

Criminal Fine: $5 million

Date: October 1991

Georgia Pacific Corporation pied guilty to federal charges of tax evasion. Federal officials alleged that the company made a false claim of a $24 million charitable contribution deduction on the company’s 1984 federal income tax return. The company agreed to pay a $5 million criminal fine and $16 million to settle civil charges.

49. Kanzaki Specialty Papers Inc.

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $4.5 million

Date: July 1994

Kanzaki Specialty Papers Inc. pied guilty to conspiring to fix the prices of thermal fax paper. The defendant companies raised the prices to North American customers by about 10 percent.

Kanzaki was fined $4.5 million.

50. ConAgra Inc.

Type of Crime: Fraud

Criminal Fine: $4.4 million

Date: March, 1997

ConAgra Inc., one of the nation’s largest food companies, pied guilty to federal charges of adulteration, misgrading and misweighing of grain.

The company agreed to pay $8.3 million in penalties, including a criminal fine of $4.4 million.

Federal officials alleged that ConAgra used several schemes to defraud farmers and grain buyers to increase their own grain inventories and profits. Soybeans were purposefully misgraded, allowing ConAgra to pay less to the farmer, yet sell at higher prices. Water was added to grain inventories, thereby adding weight and increasing profits when grain was sold. And ConAgra significantly misweighed grain being sold to end users.

51. Ryland Mortgage Company

Type of Crime: Financial

Criminal Fine: $4.2 million

Date: August 1998

Ryland Mortgage Company pied guilty to two counts of corruptly interfering with the functions of the Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC) and agreed to pay $7.7 million.

Ryland Mortgage is a unit of the Columbia, Maryland-based The Ryland Group.

Federal officials in Jacksonville, Florida alleged that Ryland “intentionally induced” the RTC to make overpayments to Ryland totalling $3.4 million for loan servicing contracts.

The company agreed to pay fines totalling $4.2 million and $3.5 million in restitution and interest.

52. (tie) Blue Cross Blue Shield of Illinois

Type of Crime: Fraud

Criminal Fine: $4 million

Date: July 1998

Health Care Service Corporation (HCSC), also known as Blue Cross Blue Shield of Illinois, pied guilty to eight felony counts and agreed to pay $144 million after admitting it concealed evidence of poor performance in processing Medicare claims for the federal government.

HCSC, the Medicare contractor for Illinois and Michigan, also admitted obstructing justice and conspiring to obstruct federal auditors.

The company agreed to pay $4 million in criminal fines and $140 million in a civil settlement to resolve its liability under the False Claims Act.

“Medicare fraud and abuse is always a serious matter but it is particularly grievous when the abuse involves a contractor entrusted to protect the financial integrity of the program,” said June Gibbs Brown, the Inspector General at the Department of Health and Human Services. “In this case, the trust was flagrantly violated by a prestigious nationally known company. It engaged in unconscionable conduct that adversely affected Medicare beneficiaries, providers and the program itself.”

Brown said the company “compromised protections by artificially inflating performance results.”

“It also falsified and destroyed documents for the purpose of disguising its shortcomings,” Brown said.

52. (tie) Borden Inc.

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $4 million

Date: March 1990

Borden Inc. pied guilty to multi-count felony informations charging long-running conspiracies to rig bids to supply dairy products to federally subsidized school milk programs and military installations.

Federal officials alleged that Borden conspired to rig school milk bids in the Florida peninsula from the early 1970s through at least 1988.

52. (tie) Dexter Corporation

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $4 million

Date: September 1992

Dexter Corporation, a Connecticut-based Fortune 500 paper company, pied guilty to violating federal and state pollution laws. The company pied guilty to eight felony counts of knowingly violating the Clean Water Act.

The company was charged with illegally disposing of carbon disulfide at its Windsor Locks facility.

The company paid a $4 million criminal fine and $9 million in civil penalties.

52(tie) Southland Corporation

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $4 million

Date: March 1990

Southland Corporation pied guilty to multi-count felony informations charging long-running conspiracies to rig bids to supply dairy products to federally subsidized school milk programs and military installations.

Federal officials alleged that Southland conspired to rig school milk bids in the Florida peninsula from the early 1970s through at least 1988.

52. (tie) Teledyne Industries Inc.

Type of Crime: Illegal exports

Criminal Fine: $4 million

Date: January 1995

Teledyne Industries Inc. pied guilty to charges that it illegally exported cluster bomb components from the United States for use by Iraq during its war with Iran during the 1980s.

A cluster bomb consists of a large bomb casing filled with hundreds of small bomblets. The casing breaks open as the bomb is dropped, and disperses the bomblets over a wide area.

52. (tie) Tyson Foods Inc.

Type of Crime: Public corruption

Criminal Fine: $4 million

Date: December 1997

Tyson Foods Inc., the world’s largest chicken products company, pied guilty to giving former Secretary of Agriculture Mike Espy over $12,000 in gratuities and agreed to pay $6 million in fines and investigative expenses.

A one-count criminal information charged that Tyson Foods gave four gratuities to Espy during 1993 and 1994 while Tyson had a number of matters before the Department of Agriculture (USDA).

The matters included an emergency interim final rule issued on August 16, 1993 by the USDA that required processors, including Tyson Foods, to place safe handling instructions on all raw meat and poultry packaging.

U.S. District Court Judge Ricardo M. Urbina accepted Tyson Foods’ plea of guilty, which was entered by Don Tyson, the chairman of the Tyson Foods Board of Directors.

Under the terms of the plea agreement, Tyson Foods agreed to pay a $4 million fine and $2 million in investigative costs.

58. (tie) Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA)

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $3.75 million

Date: July 1991

The Aluminum Company of America pied guilty to environmental crimes and paid $7.5 million in fines for hazardous waste and other violations at the company’s facility in Massena, New York.

The payment includes a criminal fine of $3.75 million, at the time the largest fine ever assessed for a hazardous waste violation.

58. (tie) Costain Coal Inc.

Type of Crime: Worker Death

Criminal Fine: $3.75 million

Date: February 1993

Costain Coal Inc. pied guilty to a pattern of misconduct at a Kentucky mine shaft site where a 1989 explosion killed 10 workers. The company agreed to pay a $3.75 million fine in connection with the pica.

The company pled guilty to 29 counts and no contest to three counts. Twenty-three of the counts were felonies, and nine of the counts were misdemeanors. They included violations of the Mine Safety Act’s mandatory health and safety standards and false statements on records filed by the company.

58. (tie) United States Sugar Corporation

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $3.75 million

Date: December 1991

United States Sugar Corporation pied guilty to eight felony environmental counts and was fined $3.75 million.

Federal officials charged U.S. Sugar with eight felonies involving the illegal disposal and transportation of hazardous wastes.

Federal officials alleged that the crimes occurred at the company’s Bryant facilities in the Lake Okeechobee area of south Florida. Federal officials charged the company with illegal disposal of lead subacetate hazardous wastes in the late 1980s. Lead subacetate is a chemical agent containing 72 percent lead which is used in the sugar mill laboratory during the harvest season.

61. Saybolt, Inc., Saybolt North America

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $3.4 million

Date: August 1998

Saybolt, Inc., and its parent company, Saybolt, North America, pied guilty to falsifying reports submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and violating the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). The company agreed to pay a $3.4 million fine.

Saybolt’s primary business is the testing of bulk commodities, such as petroleum, gasoline and other petrochemicals.

Federal officials alleged that false reports involved testing of the oxygen content of reformulated gasoline (RFG). RFG is blended to meet specifications for various chemical and physical properties, including oxygen content.

Federal officials also alleged that in 1995, Saybolt arranged to pay $50,000 in cash to Panamanian government officials in order to obtain favorable treatment for the company’s operations in that country.

62. (tie) Bristol-Myers Squibb

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $3 million

Date: April 1992

Bristol-Myers Squibb, one of the world’s largest pharmaceutical companies, pied guilty to charges of illegally discharging pollutants into Syracuse, New York area waters.

The company paid $3.5 million in criminal fines and penalties and agreed to built a pre-treatment facility that will cost at least $10 million.

The company admitted to discharging chemical pollutants into the Onondaga County Metropolitan Treatment Plant in September and October 1987 in violation of the federal Clean Water Act.

62. (tie) Chemical Waste Management Inc.

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $3 million

Date: October 1992

Chemical Waste Management Inc., a unit of Waste Management Inc., pied guilty to six felony violations of the federal Superfund law, for the company’s failure to notify the government about reportable quantities of hazardous wastes that were released into the environment.

Federal officials alleged that the company knowingly and intentionally crushed numerous drums containing hazardous substances in order to speed up a clean-up project outside Scranton, Pennsylvania.

The company paid a $3 million criminal fine and $2.85 in criminal restitution. In total, the company paid $11.6 million in criminal, civil and administrative penalties in connection with the settlement of the case.

62. (tie) Ketchikan Pulp Company

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $3 million

Date: March 1995

Ketchikan Pulp Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of Louisiana Pacific Corporation, pied guilty to dumping harmful sludge and wastewater into Alaska’s Ward Cove, including an intentional discharge that lasted for five straight days.

The company paid $3 million in criminal fines, $3.1 million in civil penalties and was ordered to clean up the area it polluted.

62. (tie) United Technologies Corporation

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $3 million

Date: May 1991

United Technologies Corporation pied guilty to six felony violations of federal environmental laws and was fined $3 million, at the time the largest criminal fine ever for a hazardous waste violation in the United States.

The charges related to the illegal discharge of hazardous waste at the company Sikorsky Aircraft Division in Stratford, Connecticut in 1986.

Federal officials charged that an industrial solvent was dumped illegally on the ground at the Stratford facility.

62. (tie) Warner-Lambert Inc.

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $3 million

Date: September 1997

Pharmaceutical manufacturer Warner-Lambert Inc. pied guilty and agreed to pay a $3 million criminal fine for falsifying reports on the levels of pollutants it was releasing into a drainage channel that feeds the Cibuco River from its wastewater treatment plant in Vega Baja, Puerto Rico.

The company also agreed to pay a $670,000 civil penalty for routinely releasing excessive levels of pollutants between 1992 and 1995, violating its wastewater discharge permit 347 times.

67(tie) Arizona Chemical Co. Inc.

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $2.5 million

Date: October 1996

Arizona Chemical Co. Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of International Paper Co., pied guilty, was fined $2.5 million, and was ordered to pay $1.5 million in restitution to the Pollution Emergency Fund of the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ).

The company pied guilty to felony violations of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

Arizona Chemical operates chemical manufacturing plants in Gulfport and Picayune, Mississippi.

The company admitted to two felony counts of violating the CWA at its Gulfport plant. The violations occurred as a result of manipulating the plant’s wastewater treatment system on sampling days so that it could report more favorable results under the plant’s National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit.

The company also admitted to one felony RCRA count involving the Picayune plant which had accumulated and stored a number of drums containing hazardous waste and had intentionally mischaracterized some of the drums as “cleaning oil” on inventory sheets.

67. (tie) Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail)

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $2.5 million

Date: July 1995

Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail) pied guilty to six felony counts of violating federal environmental laws by knowingly discharging harmful quantities of oil and grease into the Charles River.

Under the plea agreement, the company was fined $2.5 million.

Conrail pied guilty to six violations of the Clean Water Act and Oil Pollution Act, including discharging oil and grease into the Charles River on April 7, 1994 from its Beacon Park Rail Yard in Allston, Massachusetts.

The discharge caused a visible oil slick on the Charles River hundreds of yards long, and was seen by a rower who reported it to environmental authorities.

69. International Paper

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $2.2 million

Date: July 1991

International Paper pied guilty to five felony counts for violations of environmental laws at its Androscoggin Mill in Jay, Maine.

The company paid $2.2 million in criminal fines.

Federal officials alleged that during the course of the company’s operation of the mill from 1986 to 1988, the company knowingly generated, stored and treated hazardous wastes without a permit.

In addition, federal officials alleged that the company gave false material statements.

70. (tie) Consolidated Edison Company

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $2 million

Date: November 1994

Consolidated Edison Company pied guilty to four environmental crime counts in connection with the release of 200 pounds of asbestos after an August 1989 steam manhole explosion in the Gramercy Park section of Manhattan.

The company was fined $2 million. The company pied guilty to failing to report the asbestos release in a timely fashion and falsely reporting that the company did not believe that asbestos found in the street was from the manhole.

70. (tie) Crop Growers Corporation

Type of Crime: Campaign finance

Criminal fine: $2 million

Date: January 1997

Crop Growers Corporation, the second largest private seller of federal multi-peril crop insurance, pied no contest to conspiring to defraud the Federal Election Commission by concealing $46,000 in illegal corporate contributions to the Henry Espy for Congress campaign in 1993 and 1994, and with falsifying its books and records to hide these illegal contributions.

The company was fined $2 million.

On the eve of its trial, Crop Growers pied no contest to a two-count indictment which charged that in 1993, corporate contributions totaling $26,000 were disguised as individual contributions from various employees, related parties and their spouses, and that the company made an additional $20,000 corporate contribution in 1994 to Henry Espy’s campaign debt retirement effort through a New Orleans lawyer.

70. (tie) E-Systems Inc.

Type of Crime: Fraud

Criminal Fine: $2 million

Date: August 1990

E-Systems Inc. pied guilty to conspiracy to defraud the government on contracts for Army field radios by falsifying test results.

Federal prosecutors charged that the company and others conspired to falsify records and test results of tactical field radios supplied to the Army. The company also pied guilty to filing for and receiving payments based on the submission of false information.

E-Systems agreed to pay a $2 million criminal fine and $1.8 million in restitution.

70. (tie) HAL Beheer BV

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $2 million

Date: October 1998

HAL Beheer BV, the Dutch corporation that operated the Holland America Line cruise ship ss Kotterdam, pied guilty to felony violations of the Act to Prevent Pollution From Ships.

As part of its plea, the company agreed to pay a $2 million fine and will be placed on probation for a period of five years.

HAL Beheer BV pied guilty to discharging an oily mixture from the bilges of the vessel in violation of the federal law that prohibits dumping of untreated bilge water into coastal waters within three miles of U.S. shores.

The company also pied guilty to failing to keep records of oily mixture discharge, as required by law.

70. (tie) John Morrell and Company

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $2 million

Date: February 1996

John Morrell and Company pied guilty to dumping slaughterhouse waste into the Big Sioux River in Sioux Falls, South Dakota and deliberately submitting phony test data and discharge reports to conceal its crimes.

Morrell paid a $2 million criminal fine and was ordered to spend another $1 million to establish a local environmental cleanup fund.

The charges include conspiracy and violations of the Clean Water Act related to Morrell’s unlawful discharges of slaughterhouse waste from a company wastewater treatment plant over an 8-year period, from 1985 to 1993.

70. (tie) United Technologies Corporation

Type of Crime: Fraud

Criminal Fine: $2 million

Date: September 1992

United Technologies Corporation (UTC) pied guilty to four felony counts and paid a $2 million criminal fine.

Three of the counts related to the procurement of a Marine Corps radar control system. The fourth count related to the Navy’s procurement of F-404 jet engines.

In the plea agreement, UTC admitted that it conspired to defraud the government, to convert procurement sensitive information and to commit wire fraud in connection with the procurement of the radar and engines.

76) Mitsubishi Corporation, Mitsubishi International Corporation

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $1.8 million

Date: July 1994

Mitsubishi Corporation and Mitsubishi International Corporation pied guilty to conspiring to fix the prices of thermal fax paper. The defendants companies raised the prices to North American customers by about 10 percent.

Mitsubishi Corporation was fined $1.26 million and Mitsubishi International Corporation was fined $540,000.

77. (tie) Blue Shield of California

Type of Crime: Fraud

Criminal Fine: $1.5 million

Date: April 1996

Blue Shield of California pied guilty to three felony counts in connection with efforts by various Blue Shield employees to conceal claims processing errors from Medicare examiners over a six-year period.

The company was fined $1.5 million.

Federal officials charged that Blue Shield, acting through employees in its Medicare Division, conspired to obstruct audits conducted in connection with Blue Shield’s Medicare Part B contract with the Health Care Financing Administration.

77. (tie) Browning-Ferris Inc.

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $1.5 million

Date: June 1998

Browning-Ferris Inc. (BFI) pied guilty to failing to notify the District of Columbia that it discharged contaminated wastewater from its medical waste facility into Washington, D.C.’s sewer system.

BFI was fined $1.5 million and agreed to a nationwide program to ensure its medical waste facilities are complying with the law.

Federal officials charged the company with discharging contaminated wastewater from it’s Capitol Processing Plant in violation of the Clean Water Act. The plant is a medical waste facility located in northeast Washington, D.C.

77. (tie) Odwalla Inc.

Type of Crime: Food and drug

Criminal Fine: $1.5 million

Date: July 1998

Odwalla, Inc., the company with a reputation for making pure, clean, and nutritious juice drinks, pied guilty to violating federal food safety laws and agreed to pay a $1.5 million fine for selling contaminated apple juice that killed a 16-month old girl and injured at least 70 others.

The fine is the largest criminal fine for a food injury case in the history of the Food and Drug Administration and the first such criminal conviction obtained in the wake of a large-scale pathogenic outbreak.

Odwalla pied guilty to 16 counts of “delivery of adulterated food products for introduction into interstate commerce.”

The company was sentenced to five years of supervised probation.

77. (tie) Teledyne Inc.

Type of Crime: False statements

Criminal Fine: $1.5 million

Date: August 1993

Teledyne Inc. pied guilty to three felony counts for making false statements to the federal government and was fined $1.5 million.

Federal officials alleged that the company submitted false statements to the government related to its undisclosed payment of millions of dollars in commissions to a Taiwan consultant to obtain military contracts from the Taiwanese government.

77. (tie) Unocal Corporation

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $1.5 million

Date: March 1994

Unocal Corporation pied no contest to three criminal pollution charges and agreed to pay a $1.5 million criminal fine for leaking petroleum thinner into the ocean and groundwater at its Guadalupe, California oil field.

The company was found guilty of discharging up to 8.5 million gallons of petroleum over a 40-year period.

Unocal submitted a plea of no contest and was found guilty of criminal charges of failing to report the discharge of petroleum, and discharging the petroleum where it could pass into state waters.

California authorities agreed to drop 33 misdemeanor charges, including six charges against Unocal employees, when the company accepted full criminal responsibility for its conduct.

82. (tie) Doyon Drilling Inc.

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $1 million

Date: May 1998

Doyon Drilling Inc., an Alaskan oil drilling firm, pied guilty to 15 counts of violating the Oil Pollution Act, was fined $1 million and was ordered to serve five years probation.

The company also agreed to spend $2 million to establish an environmental compliance and training program for its employees.

Michael Krupa, Doyon’s health, safety and environmental coordinator, pied guilty to two counts of illegally discharging oil and hazardous substances. He was sentenced to one year and one day in jail and a $25,000 fine.

Allan Sinclair, Doyon’s former toolpusher/rig supervisor pied guilty to concealing a felony and received a sentence of four months of home confinement, five years probation and a $25,000 fine.

All three defendants pied guilty to illegally disposing of paint thinner, paint, oil and solvents by illegally injecting them down the outer rim of oil producing wells on Endicott Island, a man-made drilling facility located off of the northern coast of Alaska.

82. (tie) Eastman Kodak

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $1 million

Date: April 1990

Eastman Kodak Company pied guilty to state criminal charges of unlawful dealing in hazardous wastes and failure to properly notify authorities of a chemical spill.

The charges grew out of a spill of about 5,100 gallons of methylene chloride in February 1987 and the failure of the company to immediately notify government officials of the spill.

Neighborhood groups fighting Kodak were disappointed with the $1 million criminal fine. “It’s equivalent to you or I getting a jaywalking ticket,” said Joseph Polito, a neighboring resident.

82. (tie) Case Corporation

Type of Crime: Illegal exports

Criminal Fine: $1 million

Date: May 1996

Case Corporation, headquartered in Racine, Wisconsin, pied guilty to two counts of violating the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA) and one count of violating the Export Administration Act.

In January and February of 1986, then-President Ronald Reagan issued Executive Orders prohibiting citizens of the United States from performing contracts in support of commercial or government projects in Libya.

Case, a unit of Tenneco, pied guilty to selling, through a French affiliate, heavy construction equipment to Libya.

85. Marathon Oil

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $900,000

Date: May 1990

Marathon Oil Company pied guilty to criminal violations of the Clean Water Act. The company illegally discharged pollutants from its refinery in Indianapolis.

The guilty plea concludes a two-year investigation by the FBI following a May 26, 1989 explosion and fire in a house located downstream from the refinery. Shortly after the explosion, measurements were taken in the sewer system at the refinery’s discharge point that showed 100 percent levels of explosivity.

The company pied guilty to one felony count and two misdemeanor counts.

86. Hyundai Motor Company

Type of Crime: Campaign finance

Criminal Fine: $600,000

Date: December 1995

Hyundai Motor America pled guilty to charges of violating the Federal Election Campaign Act in connection with illegal contributions to the 1992 Jay Kim for Congress Campaign.

A federal grand jury in Los Angeles indicted Hyundai on charges of making prohibited corporate contributions, illegal contributions through employee conduits, and prohibited foreign national contributions to the 1992 Jay Kim for Congress Campaign Committee.

Under federal law, it is illegal for corporations and foreign nationals to contribute to candidates in federal elections and it is illegal to make contributions under the name of another.

The company was fined $600,000.

87. (tie) Baxter International Inc.

Type of Crime: Illegal Boycott

Criminal Fine: $500,000

Date: March 1993

Baxter International Inc. pied guilty to a criminal felony for violating the Anti-Boycott Statute by providing information about the company’s business dealings with Israel to Arab League boycott authorities.

The company paid $6 million in civil penalties and a $500,000 criminal fine.

87. (tie) Bethship-Sabine Yard

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $500,000

Date: June 1995

A $500,000 criminal fine was levied against the Bethship-Sabine Yard in Port Arthur, Texas, a division of Bethlehem Steel Corp., after the company pled guilty to illegally discharging pollutants into the Sabine Neches Waterway.

Bethship-Sabine Yard will also pay $1 million to the Southeast Texas Coastal Trust Fund, a fund entrusted to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Foundation to increase the productivity of coastal wetlands and estuarine ecosystems in and near the Sabine Neches Waterway.

The one count information in the case alleged that between January 25, 1991 and September 21, 1991, the Bethship-Sabine Yard illegally discharged pollutants from its floating drydock facility without first having obtained the necessary permit under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System.

87. (tie) Palm Beach Cruises

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $500,000

Date: July 1999

Palm Beach Cruises pied guilty and was sentenced on August 30, 1994 to a fine of $500,000 for discharging waste oil from its bilges, causing a 2.5 mile oil slick off the coast of Florida. Palm Beach Cruises also had to establish and maintain an effective environmental compliance program.

87. (tie) Princess Cruises Inc.

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $500,000

Date: July 1999

Princess Cruises Inc. pied guilty and was sentenced on April 15, 1993 to the maximum criminal fine of $500,000 for illegal dumping of garbage off the Florida Keys.

91. (tie) Cerestar Bioproducts BV

Type of Crime: Antitrust

Criminal Fine: $400,000

Date: June 1998

Cerestar Bioproducts BV, a Dutch subsidiary of the French agricultural products giant Eridania Bghin-Say SA pied guilty and was fined $400,000 for participating in an international conspiracy to fix prices and allocate market shares in the sale of citric acid worldwide.

Citric acid is a flavor additive and preservative produced from various sugars. It is found in soft drinks, processed foods, detergents, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetic products. Citric acid is a $1.2 billion a year industry worldwide.

Federal officials alleged that a Cerestar executive conspired with the world’s major producers of citric acid to suppress and eliminate competition in the citric acid industry from November 1992 until April 1994.

91. (tie) Sun-Land Products of California

Type of Crime: Campaign finance

Criminal Fine: $400,000

Date: August 1998

Sun-Land Products of California, a worldwide supplier of dried fruits and nuts, and a subsidiary of Sun-Diamond Growers of California, pied guilty to charges that the company made conduit campaign contributions in violation of federal election law.

Federal officials alleged that Sun-Land made conduit contributions of $16,000 to the Bush-Quayle ’92 Primary Committee Inc. and additional conduit contributions of $21,000 to Campaign America in 1993.

93. (tie) American Cyanamid

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $250,000

Date: November 1990

American Cyanamid pied guilty to building an unauthorized power plant at its Pearl River facility in Rockland County, New York.

The company was fined $250,000, the largest criminal penalty ever assessed in New York for a violation of state air quality regulations.

The company entered a guilty plea to a one count misdemeanor complaint.

State officials said that American Cyanamid’s Lederle Laboratories division admitted that it began construction on a $22.5 million cogeneration facility in November 1988, knowing it did not have a necessary permit.

93.(tie) Korean Air Lines

Type of Crime: Campaign finance

Criminal Fine: $250,000

Date: December 1995

Korean Airlines Co., Ltd. pied guilty to two counts of violating the Federal Election Campaign Act by making a total of $5,000 in corporate contributions and foreign national contributions to the 1992 Jay Kim for Congress Campaign Committee.

Under federal law, it is illegal for corporations and foreign nationals to contribute to candidates in federal elections. The company was fined $250,000.

93. (tie) Regency Cruises Inc.

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $250,000

Date: July 1999

Regency Cruises, Inc., a cruise ship company, was ordered to pay a $250,000 criminal fine by the Federal District Court for the Middle District of Florida for illegally deliberately dumping plastic garbage into the Gulf of Mexico in 1993.

Regency Cruises, owner of the Bahamian flag cruise ships Regent Rainbow and Regent Sea based in Tampa, Florida, and which ply the waters of the Gulf, was charged with and pied guilty to violating the Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships.

96. (tie) Adolph Coors Company

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $200,000

Date: November 1990

Adolph Coors Company pied guilty to two criminal misdemeanor counts of contaminating groundwater and failing to report the contamination to regulatory authorities.

Colorado officials alleged that Coors violated water contamination notification standards and illegally discharged hazardous waste into groundwater and into a creek near its Golden, Colorado facility from 1981 to 1984.

96. (tie) Andrew and Williamson Sales Co.

Type of crime: Food and drug

Criminal fine: $200,000

Date: November 1997

A strawberry distributor and its president pied guilty to crimes in connection with the March 1997 hepatitis outbreak that contaminated 198 school children and teachers in Michigan, Maine and Wisconsin.

Andrew and Williamson Sales Co. (A&W), and its president, Frederick Williamson, admitted their role in the fraudulent sale of 1.7 million pounds of Mexican grown strawberries to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s school lunch program.

As part of a parallel civil settlement, the company agreed to pay the government $1.3 million in civil damages.

The company was fined $200,000.

96. (tie) Daewoo International (America) Corporation

Type of Fine: Campaign finance

Criminal Fine: $200,000

Date: March 1996

Daewoo International (America) Corporation pied guilty to violating the Federal Election Campaign Act. The company was charged with making $5,000 in illegal contributions to the 1992 Jay Kim for Congress Campaign Committee.

Under federal law it is illegal for corporations to contribute to candidates in federal elections.

96. (tie) Exxon Corporation

Type of Crime: Environmental

Criminal Fine: $200,000

Date: March 1991

Exxon Corporation pied guilty to federal charges in connection with a spill of 567,000 gallons of home heating oil into Arthur Kill, a narrow waterway which separates New York from New Jersey. Exxon entered the plea as part of a $15 million settlement with local, state and federal governments.

Exxon was fined $200,000, the maximum allowed by law, but paid an additional $4.8 million in restitution as part of a $15 million package global settlement of the Arthur Kill spill.

100. Samsung America Inc.

Type of Crime: Campaign finance

Criminal Fine: $150,000

Date: February 1996

Samsung America Inc. pied guilty to violating the Federal Election Campaign Act. The company made $10,000 in illegal contributions to the 1992 Jay Kim for Congress Campaign Committee.

Under federal law, it is illegal for corporations to contribute to candidates in federal elections.

THE TOP 100 CORPORATE CRIMINALS OF THE 1990s

1) F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.

Criminal Fine: $500 million

2) Daiwa Bank Ltd.

Criminal Fine: $340 million

3) BASF Aktiengesellschaft

Criminal Fine: $225 million

4) SGL Carbon Aktiengesellschaft (SGLAG)

Criminal Fine: $135 million

5) Exxon Corporation and Exxon Shipping

Criminal Fine: $125 million

6) UCAR International, Inc.

Criminal Fine: $110 million

7) Archer Daniels Midland

Criminal Fine: $100 million

8)(tie) Banker’s Trust

Criminal Fine: $60 million

8)(tie) Sears Bankruptcy Recovery Management Services

Criminal Fine: $60 million

10) Haarman & Reimer Corp.

Criminal fine: $50 million

11) Louisiana-Pacific Corporation

Criminal Fine: $37 million

12) Hoechst AG

Criminal Fine: $36 million

13) Damon Clinical Laboratories, Inc.

Criminal Fine: $35.2 million

14) C.R. Bard Inc.

Criminal Fine: $30.9 million

15) Genentech Inc.

Criminal Fine: $30 million

16) Nippon Gohsei

Criminal Fine: $21 million

17)(tie) Pfizer Inc.

Criminal Fine: $20 million

17)(tie) Summitville Consolidated Mining Co. Inc.

Criminal Fine: $20 million

19)(tie) Lucas Western Inc.

Criminal Fine: $18.5 million

19)(tie) Rockwell International Corporation

Criminal Fine: $18.5 million

21) Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.

Criminal Fine: $18 million

22) Teledyne Industries Inc.

Criminal Fine: $17.5 million

23) Northrop

Criminal Fine: $17 million

24) Litton Applied Technology Division (ATD) and Litton Systems Canada (LSL)

Criminal Fine: $16.5 million

25) Iroquois Pipeline Operating Company

Criminal Fine: $15 million

26) Eastman Chemical Company

Criminal Fine: $11 million

27) Copley Pharmaceutical, Inc.

Criminal Fine: $10.65 million

28) Lonza AG

Criminal Fine: $10.5 million

29) Kimberly Home Health Care Inc.

Criminal Fine: $10.08 million

30)(tie) Ajinomoto Co. Inc.

Criminal Fine: $10 million

30)(tie) Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI)

Criminal Fine: $10 million

30)(tie) Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd.

Criminal Fine: $10 million

30)(tie) Warner-Lambert Company

Criminal Fine: $10 million

34) General Electric

Criminal Fine: $9.5 million

35)(tie) Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.

Criminal Fine: $9 million

35)(tie) Showa Denko Carbon

Criminal Fine: $9 million

37) IBM East Europe/Asia Ltd.

Criminal Fine: $8.5 million

38) Empire Sanitary Landfill Inc.

Criminal fine: $8 million

39)(tie) Colonial Pipeline Company

Criminal Fine: $7 million

39)(tie) Eklof Marine Corporation

Criminal Fine: $7 million

41)(tie) Chevron

Criminal Fine: $6.5 million

41)(tie) Rockwell International Corporation

Criminal Fine: $6.5 million

43) Tokai Carbon Ltd. Co.

Criminal Fine: $6 million

44)(tie) Allied Clinical Laboratories, Inc.

Criminal Fine: $5 million

44)(tie) Northern Brands International Inc.

Criminal Fine: $5 million

44)(tie) Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation

Criminal Fine: $5 million

44)(tie) Unisys

Criminal Fine: $5 million

44)(tie) Georgia Pacific Corporation

Criminal Fine: $5 million

49) Kanzaki Specialty Papers Inc.

Criminal Fine: $4.5 million

50) ConAgra Inc.

Criminal Fine: $4.4 million

51) Ryland Mortgage Company

Criminal Fine: $4.2 million

52)(tie) Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Illinois

Criminal Fine: $4 million

52)(tie) Borden Inc.

Criminal Fine: $4 million

52)(tie) Dexter Corporation

Criminal Fine: $4 million

52)(tie) Southland Corporation

Criminal Fine: $4 million

52)(tie) Teledyne Industries Inc.

Criminal Fine: $4 million

52)(tie) Tyson Foods Inc.

Criminal Fine: $4 million

58)(tie) Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA)

Criminal Fine: $3.75 million

58)(tie) Costain Coal Inc.

Criminal Fine: $3.75 million

58)(tie) United States Sugar Corporation

Criminal Fine: $3.75 million

61) Saybolt, Inc., Saybolt North America

Criminal Fine: $3.4 million

62)(tie) BristoL-Myers Squibb

Criminal Fine: $3 million

62)(tie) Chemical Waste Management, Inc.

Criminal Fine: $3 million

62)(tie) Ketchikan Pulp Company

Criminal Fine: $3 million

62)(tie) United Technologies Corporation

Criminal Fine: $3 million

62)(tie) Warner-Lambert Inc.

Criminal Fine: $3 million

67)(tie) Arizona Chemical Co. Inc.

Criminal Fine: $2.5 million

67)(tie) Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail)

Criminal Fine: $2.5 million

69) International Paper

Criminal Fine: $2.2 million

70)(tie) Consolidated Edison Company

Criminal Fine: $2 million

70)(tie) Crop Growers Corporation

Criminal fine: $2 million

70)(tie) E-Systems Inc.

Criminal Fine: $2 million

70)(tie) HAL Beheer BV

Criminal Fine: $2 million

70)(tie) John Morrell and Company

Criminal Fine: $2 million

70)(tie) United Technologies Corporation

Criminal Fine: $2 million

76) Mitsubishi Corporation, Mitsubishi International Corporation

Criminal Fine: $1.8 million

77)(tie) Blue Shield of California

Criminal Fine: $1.5 million

77)(tie) Browning-Ferris Inc.

Criminal Fine: $1.5 million

77)(tie) Odwalla Inc.

Criminal Fine: $1.5 million

77)(tie) Teledyne Inc.

Criminal Fine: $1.5 million

77)(tie) Unocal Corporation

Criminal Fine: $1.5 million

82)(tie) Doyon Drilling Inc.

Criminal Fine: $1 million

82)(tie) Eastman Kodak

Criminal Fine: $1 million

82)(tie) Case Corporation

Criminal Fine: $1 million

85) Marathon Oil

Criminal Fine: $900,000

Criminal Fine: $1 million

85) Marathon Oil

Criminal Fine: $900,000

86) Hyundai Motor Company

Criminal Fine: $600,000

87)(tie) Baxter International Inc.

Criminal Fine: $500,000

87)(tie) Bethship-Sabine Yard

Criminal Fine: $500,000

87(tie) Palm Beach Cruises

Criminal Fine: $500,000

87)(tie) Princess Cruises Inc.

Criminal Fine: $500,000

91)(tie) Cerestar Bioproducts BV

Criminal Fine: $400,000

91)(tie) Sun-Land Products of California

Criminal Fine: $400,000

93)(tie) American Cyanamid

Criminal Fine: $250,000

93)(tie) Korean Air Lines

Criminal Fine: $250,000

93)(tie) Regency Cruises Inc.

Criminal Fine: $250,000

96)(tie) Adolph Coors Company

Criminal Fine: $200,000

96)(tie) Andrew and Williamson Sales Co.

Criminal fine: $200,000

96)(tie) Daewoo International (America) Corporation

Criminal Fine: $200,000

96)(tie) Exxon Corporation

Criminal Fine: $200,000

100) Samsung America Inc.

Criminal Fine: $150,000

Lets have a look at the two drugs they are currently prescribing for Fibromyalgia, Cymbalta and Lyrica. I found this from the Patients like me website.

Cymbalta side effects as an overall problem of 754 people, 511 experienced side effect, 119 being severe. Of the 481 side effects reported, the most common were libido decreased, sweating increased, nausea, dizziness, brain cloud and insomnia, most being moderate to severe.

Lyrica side effects as an overall problem of 604 people, 484 experienced side effects, 151 of them being severe. Of the 610 side effects reported, the most common were weight gain, brain fog, daytime sleepiness, dizziness, lack of concentration and blurry vision.

Interesting enough, after 18 years of the drugs they have given me, since giving them up, the brain fog or cloud has disappeared, the weight gain has stopped and I have returned to my normal weight, I don’t experience the dizziness anymore or the nausea (except from certain foods), my concentration is better and I sleep better now.

It has taken a very strict program of chiropractic care/stretching/exercise/diet changes/herbals/vitamins/giving up certain things/adding certain things plus many more hints and tips, an overall combination of events that is finally helping me. I am by all means not cured but I am far better off than a year ago and I can see things a lot more clearly now. Understanding your body and what is going on with it is half the battle instead of drowning it with chemical drugs in hope for a cure. Not one of the many, many drugs I was on cured anything, only complicated things for me and I could see the drugs were going to be detrimental to me in the long term.

My questions are:

Why are we okay with drugs that give a majority of users side effects that are mild to severe, yet don’t really help?

How can all these drugs be good for our organs in the long term?

How can they drug this illness when they don’t even know what it is?

How do they know they aren’t making it worse?

Some of us can’t take the drugs anymore, what about us? Are there any other Fibromyalgia sufferers in the same boat? Please share you comments.

Cymbalta

Side effect as an overall problem

Severe         119

Moderate   179

Mild             213

None           243

Most commonly reported side effects

Sex drive (libido) decreased   97

Sweating increased                    90

Nausea                                           89

Dizziness

Lyrica

Side effects as an overall problem

Severe         151

Moderate   175

Mild             158

None            120

Most commonly reported side effects

Weight gain                      164

Brain fog                            102

Daytime sleepiness          95

Dizziness                          92

Lack of Concentration 81

Blurry vision                    76

 

 

Please go support our local Canadian Farmers from

genetically modified seeds, it only takes a few

moments of your time to protect your food of the

future!

Support Bill C-474

Its quick! Send an instant letter to your Member of Parliament! First, enter your postal code below so we can look up your MP. Second, just fill out the form – you will have a chance to read and customize the letter to your MP, before it is sent.

Bill C-474 would support Canadian farmers by requiring that “an analysis of potential harm to export markets be conducted before the sale of any new genetically engineered seed is permitted.”

http://www.cban.ca/Take-Action/Support-Bill-C-474

I did some research on Tylenol, the most widely used pain killer. I found some interesting facts and something that could perhaps save someones life if they try to commit suicide with the pain killer Tylenol or Acetaminophen or Paracetamol. Overdose may result in severe or possibly fatal liver damage.

What I didn’t know is that there is an antidote that could perhaps save that someone’s life. Many suicide attempts are made with Tylenol and unfortunately they sometimes awaken but later die from liver toxicity. Even more interesting, the reasons for this poisoning are to do with the process by which paracetamol is eliminated from the body. It is first metabolized to a quinone imine. This compound is extremely toxic, and like other such compounds is eliminated in the liver by reaction with a tripeptide, glutathione. If insufficient glutathione is available, the toxic quinone will not be eliminated and begins to react with cellular proteins and nucleic acids in the liver, eventually causing irreparable damage. The two compounds, Methionine and N-acetylcysteine can boost levels of the vial glutathione in the liver, and so can be used as antidote for paracetamol (tylenol) poisoning, if the overdose if discovered in time. Article below.

Here are the ingredients from the tylenol website. See bottom of article, I have listed the meaning of the non-medical ingredients to see what the heck they are and what they mean to our health as well:

http://www.tylenol.ca/products/adult/body-aches-pains/muscle-aches-body-pain/tylenol-muscle-aches-body-pain?gclid=CIDB6NbOsqYCFQO8KgodvQmzoQ

Medicinal Ingredient: Acetaminophen, 650 mg

Non-Medicinal Ingredients (alphabetical): carnauba wax, cellulose, corn starch, FD&C red no. 40, hydroxyethylcellulose, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, povidone, sodium starch glycolate, triacetin.

So just what is Acetaminophen? Here is what I found:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paracetamol

Paracetamol or acetaminophen

While generally safe in Recommended doses – 1,000.00 mg per single dose and up to 4,000 mg per day for adults/up to 2,0000 mg if consuming alcohol.

Acute overdose can cause fatal liver damage and in rare individuals a normal dose can do the same. * Risk is heightened by alcohol consumption.

*** PARACETAMOL TOXICITY IS THE FOREMOST CAUSE OF ACUTE LIVER FAILURE IN THE WESTERN WORLD AND ACCOUNTS FOR DRUG OVERDOSES IN THE UNITED STATES, THE UNITED KINGDOM, AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND!!!!!

Now we can see how serious this little pill really is. Did you notice that the single recommended dose is 1,000 grams, yet their pill contains 650 grams, so you are overdosing each time you take two tylenol together, interesting.

So back to the makers website, I really had to look to find the side effects, they are hidden under the products tab, under the caution tab:

Caution

Keep out of the reach of children. This package contains enough drug to seriously harm a child. Do not use with other drugs containing acetaminophen. Do not take more than the maximum daily dose. Overdose may result in severe or possibly fatal liver damage. Do not take if allergic to acetaminophen. Consult a doctor if: Your symptoms last for more than 5 days; You develop allergic reactions such as wheezing, rash or itching. Ask a doctor or pharmacist before use if you: Are pregnant or breastfeeding; Have chronic alcoholism; Have a serious liver or kidney disease; Use any other medications including natural health products, prescription drugs, salicylates or other pain and fever relief medications. In case of overdose, call a Poison Control Centre or doctor immediately, even if you do not notice any possible signs or symptoms such as increased sweating, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, and loss of appetite. Use only as directed by a doctor.

There you have it from the Tylenol makers. So I did some further research on Paracetamol. When it is mixed with codeine, it becomes Tylenol. See below. :

http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/rzepa/mim/drugs/html/paracet_text.htm

Paracetamol (Acetaminophen)


A Chance Discovery

The painkilling properties of paracetamol were discovered by accident when a similar molecule (acetanilide) was added to a patient’s prescription about 100 years ago. But since acetanilide is toxic in moderate doses, chemists modified its structure to try and find a compound that was less harmful but which still retained the analgesic properties. One of these compounds is N-acetyl-para-aminophenol, which is also known as acetaminophen in the US and paracetamol (from para-acetyl-amino-phenol) in the UK. When mixed with codeine it goes by the tradename Tylenol.

Acetanilide Paracetamol Aniline

In fact, in the body, the original compound, acetanilide is partially converted into a mixture of paracetamol and aniline. The paracetamol provides the painkilling properties, but the aniline is toxic. Paracetamol has a very similar structure to aspirin, and because of this they are recognised by the same enzyme. This enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of prostoglandins, which are involved in the dilation of blood vessels that causes the pain experienced in a headache. Reduction of the amount of prostoglandin, therefore, helps prevent headaches and other pain.

How it’s made

Paracetamol is one of the most common drugs used in the world, and is manufactured in huge quantities. The starting material for the commercial manufacture of paracetamol is phenol, which is nitrated to give a mixture of the ortho and para-nitrotoluene. The o-isomer is removed by steam distillation, and the p-nitro group reduced to a p-amino group. This is then acetylated to give paracetamol.

Paracetamol as Poison

Because paracetamol is a potent drug that is available without prescription, it is often used in suicide attempts, and in this respect it is potentially more dangerous than other over-the-counter drugs such as aspirin. This is because paracetamol overdoses often cause liver failure, and there have been many cases where attempted suicides have awakened from an overdose and changed their minds, yet still died a few days later from liver damage.

The reasons for this poisoning are to do with the process by which paracetamol is eliminated from the body. It is first metabolised to a quinone imine:

This compound is extremely toxic, and like other such compounds is eliminated in the liver by reaction with a tripeptide, glutathione. If insufficient glutathione is available, the toxic quinone will not be eliminated and begins to react with cellular proteins and nucleic acids in the liver, eventually causing irreparable damage.

However, two compounds, methionine and N-acetylcysteine can boost levels of the vital glutathione in the liver, and so can be used as antidotes for paracetamol poisoning if the overdose is discovered in time. A new formulation of paracetamol is now being marketed in the UK which incorporates methianine, such that the drug carries its own antidote with it!

Here are the non-medical ingredients from Tylenol’s website and their meaning from dictionary.com:

Non-Medicinal Ingredients (alphabetical): carnauba wax, cellulose, corn starch, FD&C red no. 40, hydroxyethylcellulose, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, povidone, sodium starch glycolate, triacetin.

.

carnauba wax car·nau·ba

–noun

1.

a palm, Copernicia prunifera,  of Brazil, having palmate leaves covered with wax.

2. Also called carnauba wax . the hard, lustrous wax obtained from the leaves of this tree, used as a polish or floor wax

cellulose

cel·lu·lose

–noun

an inert carbohydrate, (C 6 H 10 O 5 ) n ,  the chief constituent of the cell walls of plants and of wood, cotton, hemp, paper, etc.

corn starch corn·starch

–noun

a starch or a starchy flour made from corn and used for thickening gravies and sauces, making puddings, etc
Also called, especially British, corn flour.

FD&C red no. 40 (I couldn’t find this in the dictionary but it was in the PAN Pesticides Database – Chemicals)
Even more interesting is why they color the pills:
There is a psychological effect of color – “active” colors such as red or yellow tend to make us feel more alert and “passive” colors such as blue or green tend to makes us feel more relaxed. Depending on the expected effect of the medication, the manufacturer may impart a color to help suggest the desired response. In reality, the color has no effect on the effectiveness of the medication, which is why it’s listed under inactive ingredients on the label.
Which lead me to the red dye website that will give you amazing information on the subject as well as sources of red dye:
Red40 in Pain relievers
Even pain medications may contain Red Dye #40. The reason is based in the fact that there are only four common medications available for over the counter pain relief – aspirin, acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve). Manufacturers need to find a way to to differentiate their product from their competitors, otherwise the consumer is likely to purchase a low priced “generic” pain reliever. Because they contain the same active ingredient as the generic, the only alternative is packaging and branding. By wrapping their pain reliever in a red and yellow striped shell and spending millions of dollars advertising that their colored pill is better than their competitor’s, they can build up product identification, brand loyalty and profits. Increasingly, the generics have diversified to the point where they now mimic the packaging of the product, so you may find generic ibuprofen in either yellow, orange or brown to mimic the leading brands
Now as for Hydroxyethylcellulose, it wasn’t in the dictionary but it lead me to a cosmetic website:

HYDROXYETHYLCELLULOSE

Binder; Emulsion Stabilizer; Film Former; Viscosity Increasing Agent – Aqueous; BINDING; EMULSION STABILISING; FILM FORMING; STABILISING; VISCOSITY CONTROLLING

Also listed as

CELLULOSE HYDROXYETHYLATE; CELLULOSE, 2-HYDROXYETHYL ETHER; H. E. CELLULOSE; 2-HYDROXYETHYL ETHER CELLULOSE; CELLULOSE, 2HYDROXYETHYL ETHER; 2-HYDROXYETHYL CELLULOSE; 2-HYDROXYETHYL CELLULOSE ETHER; AW 15 (POLYSACCHARIDE) ; BL 15; CELLOSIZE 4400H16; CELLOSIZE QP

Given the incomplete information made available by companies and the government, EWG provides additional information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature. The chart below indicates that research studies have found that exposure to this ingredient — not the products containing it — caused the indicated health effect(s) in the studies reviewed by Skin Deep researchers. Actual health risks, if any, will vary based on the level of exposure to the ingredient and individual susceptibility — information not available in Skin Deep.
This ingredient:
no Cancer
yes, weak Developmental/reproductive toxicity
no Allergies/immunotoxicity
no Use restrictions
no Contamination concerns
no Lesser or emerging concerns for this ingredient:
Neurotoxicity, Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive),
HYPROMELLOSE
A highly viscous, water-soluble, non-irritating compound used as a thickening, lubricating and clinging agent. It is used principally as artificial tears (as for example in the management of keratoconjunctivitis sicca) and sometimes as a wetting agent. Syn. hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. 
Millodot: Dictionary of Optometry and Visual Science, 7th edition. © 2009 Butterworth-Heinemann
http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/

MAGNESIUM STEARATE

Renal Complications Demonstrated in Laboratory Animals

The United States National Library of Medicine Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) lists the toxic effects that occurred when magnesium stearate was fed to experimental rats. In some rats, urinary stones developed, and in others a condition known as nephrocalcinosis occurred, where excess calcium deposits in the kidneys. Nephrocalcinosis is a dangerous condition that may lead to kidney damage and failure.

Human Health Effects

The United States National Library of Medicine Toxicology Data Network lists various potential health side effects of magnesium stearate in humans. The network has deemed the chemical slightly toxic if ingested. There have even been reports of deaths following accidental inhalation of baby dusting powder containing magnesium stearate as an ingredient. In cases of accidental ingestion of a large dose, it can result in acute magnesium toxicity manifested by weakness, a drop in blood pressure and a slowing of the heart.

Other Adverse Effects

The International Programme on Chemical Safety mentions several chemical hazards related to magnesium stearate. In addition to being spontaneously combustible, magnesium stearate is said to emit toxic fumes and pungent smoke when heated. The International Programme on Chemical Safety further enumerates that this can affect breathing and cause the development of coughing. Vomiting can also be triggered as a result of the ingestion of magnesium particles scattered in the air as a result of heating.

POVIDONE po·vi·done

n.

A polymer used as a vehicle for drugs, especially iodine.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Sodium Starch Glycolate or SSG

Overview

Sodium starch glycolate, or SSG, is a common ingredient in many pharmaceutical pills, although it is not a medicine. SSG is the sodium salt of a carboxymethyl ether of starch. It is commonly used as a rapid disintegrant, a chemical that promotes the rapid distingetration and immediate release of orally administered drugs. It coats the pills keeping the medicine in, but releases the medicine rapidly upon contact with water.

Warning

Sodium starch glycolate can be derived from any starch source. For example, corn, rice, potatoes and wheat are all potential sources. Some of these sources, are not gluten-free; for example, wheat. Therefore, medications listing sodium starch glycolate as an ingredient may not be gluten-free. For people in need of a gluten-free diet, such as those suffering from celiac disease, or people with gluten allergies, it is important to determine the exact botanical source of the sodium starch glycolate in the medication before that mediation can be considered safe.

TRIACETIN
Triacetin, triacetate ester of glycerol, is a clear, combustible and oily liquid with a bitter taste and a fatty odor. It is slightly soluble in water but soluble in alcohol and ether. It has properties of both glycerol and acetate. Diacetin (CAS RN: 25395-31-7) and nonoacetin (CAS RN: 26446-35-5) are glycerin diacetate and glycerin monoacetate respectively. Triacetin is found in some food like butter as it is used as a food additive for the solvency of flavourings for the function of humectant. It is used in perfumery and cosmetics for these applications. It is used as an antifungal agent in external medicine for topical treatment of superficial fungal infections of the skin. Triacetin is applied to cigarette filter as a plasticizer. It is used as a gelatinizing agent in explosives. .
http://www.chemicalland21.com/industrialchem/plasticizer/TRIACETIN.htm
So, my conclusion to all this is that tylenol is made up of a lot of chemicals that are used in cosmetics, cigarette filter as a plasticizer, gelatinizing agent for explosives, known toxicity, side effect and can be detrimental to those with celiac disease as sodium starch glycolate as an ingredient may not be gluten-free. Not to mention the adverse and life threatening effects of the medical ingredient of tylenol. This safe little pill sure makes me wonder now about the long term effect and how safe it really is. What about you?
I just learned something myself as I am celiac and I have been told for years to take tylenol.

Seriously ladies there are a lot of facts showing that mammograms are contributing to breast cancer itself. Read below:

In the midst of the 1976 radiation debate, Kodak, a major manufacturer of mammography film, took out full-page ads in scientific journals entitled About breast cancer and X-rays: A hopeful message from industry sober topic.

Since mammographic screening was introduced, the incidence of a form of breast cancer called ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has increased by 328 percent. Two hundred percent of this increase is allegedly due to mammography. In addition to harmful radiation, mammography may also help spread existing cancer cells due to the considerable pressure placed on the woman’s breast during the procedure. According to some health practitioners, this compression could cause existing cancer cells to metastasize from the breast tissue.

***This happened to my mother. After her mamograms she ended up with cancer spreading throughout her body. Her health continuously declined until she was totally bedridden before her death.

The risk of radiation is apparently higher among younger women. The NCI released evidence that, among women under 35, mammography could cause 75 cases of breast cancer for every 15 it identifies. Another Canadian study found a 52 percent increase in breast cancer mortality in young women given annual mammograms.

A little mammogram humor for the ladies!

Mammograms

Many women are afraid of their first mammogram, but there is no need to worry. By

taking a few minutes each day for a week preceding the exam and doing the

following exercises, you will be totally prepared for the test and best of all, you can do

these simple exercises right in and around your home.

EXERCISE ONE:

Open your refrigerator door and insert one breast in door. Shut the door as hard

as possible and lean on the door for good measure. Hold that position for five

seconds. Repeat again in case the first time wasn’t effective enough..

EXERCISE TWO:

Visit you garage at 3 am when the temperature of cement floor is just perfect. Take

off all your clothes and lie comfortably on the floor with one breast wedged under the

rear tire of the car. Ask a friend to slowly back the car up until your breast is

sufficiently flattened and chilled. Turn over and repeat with the other breast.

EXERCISE THREE:

Freeze two metal bookends overnight. Strip to the waist. Invite a stranger into

the room. Press the bookends against one of your breasts. Smash the bookends

together as hard as you can. Set up an appointment with the stranger to meet

next year and do it again.



Millions against Monsanto. Please take the time now to sign these petitions to stop genetically modified foods.

http://www.organicconsumers.org/monlink.cfm

Consumers have the right to know what is in their food!

OCA is calling on retailers to pledge voluntary compliance with our Truth-in-Labeling campaign by clearly identifying all food products containing genetically modified ingredients with a label or shelf sign that says “May Contain GMOs” and by identifying all factory farmed animal products with a label or shelf sign that says “CAFO.”

Canadian GM Flax Contamination Crisis Continues

Farmers in Canada are in the midst of a serious economic crisis created by GM flax contamination.

In late 2009, the GM contamination reached 35 countries and closed the European and other markets. The GM flax seed has been illegal to sell in Canada since 2001 and is not approved for human consumption outside of Canada and the US. The GM flax contamination crisis warns of the consequences if GM alfalfa or GM wheat are introduced.

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New on the Website

January 14, 2011

PEI Groups Secure Pledge from Premier on GE Fish – Province will seek transparency from Environment Canada

December 6, 2010

Groups Oppose Genetically Engineered Salmon – Demand Immediate Disclosure from Environment Canada

December 2, 2010

Victory for Democracy in Canada on Genetic Engineering – Unpredented Debate in the House of Commons Secured on Bill C-474 for 2011

Features

Canadian GM Flax Contamination Crisis Continues

Farmers in Canada are in the midst of a serious economic crisis created by GM flax contamination.

In late 2009, the GM contamination reached 35 countries and closed the European and other markets.

http://www.cban.ca/Resources/Topics/Enviropig/Write-the-Minister-of-Health-Stop-Enviropig

http://www.cban.ca/Take-Action/Support-Bill-C-474

Codeine is a widely used drug. How many people experience some of these side effects while on codeine yet go on another drug for a side effect they are experiencing? Say for example someone is on codeine for back pain. They eventually start to develop stomach pain and go back to the Dr and are then put on stomach pills, instead of trying an alternative treatment or even suspecting the codeine. Or say a woman experiences mood changes and they are told it is menopause and put of hormones. Personally I think this goes on a lot in society today. Medicating the side effects. It seems very out of control to me.

We really should reporting side effects to the FDA. I know I haven’t personally but with the long list of side effects I been through I should have.

I found some sources for the side effects from codeine, see below. I hope if you are a codeine user, you will take this list seriously and consider that it could be the culprit:

Codeine is absorbed quickly from the GI tract and it’s first pass through the liver results in very little loss of the drug. This contrasts with morphine in which over 90% of the drug is metabolized in the first pass through the liver resulting in a considerable loss of potency when administered orally.

Narcotics induce an “opioid analgesia” by altering the perception of pain at the spinal cord and brain. They also affect emotional responses to pain. Opioids have stimulating effects as well because they block inhibitory neurotransmitters. Repeated use of these drugs can cause long-term changes in the way the nervous system functions.

Codeine has a variety of recognizable side effects, including:

  • stomach bleeding
  • kidney and liver damage
  • “itchies”
  • constipation
  • nausea
  • hangover
  • tiny pupils, blurred vision, poor night vision
  • impair your ability to drive
  • lowered heart rate, blood pressure and breathing
  • disorientation, hallucinations
  • convulsions
  • depression
  • sexual problems
  • agitation, tremors, and seizures

http://www.clearhavencenter.com/substance-abuse-treatment-resources/signs-of-Codeine-use.php

What side effects can this medication cause?

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Codeine may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:

  • dizziness
  • lightheadedness
  • headache
  • drowsiness
  • mood changes
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • constipation
  • stomach pain
  • difficulty urinating

Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately:

  • difficulty breathing or swallowing
  • fast, pounding, or irregular heartbeat
  • rash
  • itching
  • hives
  • changes in vision
  • seizures

Codeine may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while you are taking this medication.

If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online [at http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch] or by phone [1-800-332-1088].

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682065.html#side-effects

Side effects that you should report to your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible:
•allergic reactions like skin rash, itching or hives, swelling of the face, lips, or tongue
•breathing problems
•cold, clammy skin
•confusion
•fast or slow heartbeat
•feeling faint or lightheaded, falls
•seizures
•trouble passing urine or change in the amount of urine

Side effects that usually do not require medical attention (report to your doctor or health care professional if they continue or are bothersome):
•constipation
•drowsiness
•dry mouth
•nausea, vomiting
•pinpoint pupils
•sweating

This list may not describe all possible side effects. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

http://drugsaz.about.com/od/drugs/codeine.htm

See my article on alternatives to tylenol has potential for liver and kidney toxicity, even death for some alternative pain relief:

http://naturalpainreliefforfibromyalgia.com/Blog/wp-admin/post.php?post=484&action=edit